K e y w o r d s: religious tourism, resident perception, Istanbul, Turkey, islam, mosque
Abstract. Resident perception of tourism impacts has been one of the most studied areas of tourism. However, there is an extremely limited literature on resident perceptions of religious tourism development, especially in non-Western countries. This study investigated the attitudes of local residents toward tourists visiting four important mosques in Istanbul, Turkey and their perception of religious tourism development. All residents surveyed were practicing Muslims who prayed in a mosque at least once a year. We found that, in general, local residents are supportive of tourists visiting their mosque, but the level of support may differ based on the demographic and cultural background of the residents as well as on the number of tourists visiting the mosque |full text|.
Synoptic Conditions Generating Heat Waves and Warm Spells in Romania
K e y w o r d s: heat wave, warm spell, percentile threshold, synoptic conditions, Romania
Abstract. Heat waves and warm spells are extreme meteorological events that generate a significant number of casualties in temperate regions, as well as outside of temperate regions. For the purpose of this paper, heat waves and warm spells were identified based on daily maximum temperatures recorded at 27 weather stations located in Romania over a 55-year period (1961–2015). The intensity threshold was the 90th percentile, and the length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. We analyzed 111 heat wave and warm spell events totaling 423 days. The classification of synoptic conditions was based on daily reanalysis at three geopotential levels and on the online version of a backward trajectories model. The main findings are that there are two major types of genetic conditions. These were identified as: (i) radiative heat waves and warm spells (type A) generated by warming the air mass due to high amounts of radiation which was found dominant in warm season; and (ii) advective heat waves and warm spells (type B) generated mainly by warm air mass advection which prevails in winter and transition seasons. These major types consist of two and three sub-types, respectively. The results could become a useful tool for weather forecasters in order to better predict the occurrence of heat waves and warm spells |full text|.
Recent Changes in Heat Waves and Cold Waves Detected Based on Excess Heat Factor and Excess Cold Factor in Romania
K e y w o r d s: climate changes, heat wave indices, cold wave indices, excess heat factor, excess cold factor, ordinary least square method, Romania
Abstract. In this paper, we investigated changes in heat and cold waves in Romania over the period 1961–2015 by employing a new and superior approach. It consists in using excess heat factor to identify heat waves and excess cold factor to identify cold waves. Five indices were calculated and then analysed for both heat waves and cold waves resulting in a set of ten indices. Indices for heat waves were analysed for the extended summer season (May–September), whereas those for cold waves were assessed for the extended winter (November–March). The intensity threshold was set to be equal or above the 90th percentile for heat waves, and equal or below the 10th percentile for cold waves, while the duration threshold for both heat and cold waves was of at least three consecutive days. For a better comparison with other studies conducted worldwide, and to get more information from the data sets, the percentile thresholds for heat and cold waves identification were calculated based on three reference periods: 1961–1990, 1971–2000, and 1981–2010. Trends were calculated using ordinary least square method, whereas statistical significance was assessed by the t-test. The main results indicated that changes are more substantial in the case of indices calculated based on excess heat factor compared to those based on excess cold factor, suggesting that the warming process is more reflected in heat waves rather than in cold waves. Thus, heat waves became more frequent, longer, and more intense, while cold waves became less frequent, but more intense. When the reference period for percentile threshold calculation was changed from the earliest to the most recent ones, the frequency of increasing and significant increasing trends decreased for some of the heat wave indices, while for the cold wave indices the significant downward trends increased |full text|.
The Impact of Climatic and Non-Climatic Factors on Land Surface Temperature in Southwestern Romania
K e y w o r d s: normalize difference vegetation index, landsat, land surface temperature, spectral radiance, severe drought event
Abstract. Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986–2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region |full text|.
A Framework for Addressing Health Disparities in Vulnerable Populations with the Help of ESRI Community Analyst
K e y w o r d s: ESRI community analyst, vulnerable communities, targeted health policies
Abstract. Increasingly, health outcomes are tied to nutritional opportunities based on the availability of foods and cultural patterns of consumption. This paper demonstrates how Esri Community Analyst can help in identifying at-risk communities. The methodology that results argues a means by which national data made available by Esri in a ‘‘one-stop shop’’ can be utilized in a simplified, user-friendly way to identify specific populations with higher prevalence of certain diseases and areas where nutritional needs are likely unmet. For demonstration purposes, this paper presents a case study for South Carolina, USA |full text|.
Renewable Energy's Impact on Rural Development in Northwestern Romania
K e y w o r d s: rural development, employment, revenues, demographics, agriculture
Abstract. Romania has increased its production of electricity from renewable sources by relying on projects situated in rural areas. This paper explores the impact of renewable energy projects on rural development in northwestern Romania. The critical review of the literature has revealed that most studies stress the positive effects renewable energy projects can have on employment, demographics, revenues to the local budgets, and agriculture in the host communities. We observed, however, that none of those studies had a quantitative approach and they do not study in a comparative manner these effects. This paper takes a step further and compares the evolution of the four variables for villages with andwithout implemented renewable energy projects.We compared the evolution of employment, demographics, revenues and processed agriculture land from 2010 to 2014. For the two groups of villages, the data shows no difference between villages with and without implemented renewable energy projects |full text|.
Advance in Glacier Modelling: GIS and Oriented Programming Approach Applied on Whittier Glacier, Alaska
K e y w o r d s: climate change, satellite images, ice retreat, prediction model, melting
Abstract. The global warming affects drastically the glaciers melting, a fact for which the glaciers from Alaska are continuously retreating. Based on Geographical Information System and oriented programming, we have defined a new method to model the glaciers. The Whittier Glacier from South Alaska was analysed in the last 30 years and it was modelled under climate conditions of the 21st century. The glacier modelling has come out from calculations of annual retreat rate, the hemisphere, the latitude, the annual temperature, the precipitation, the altitude data, and the aspect of flow direction. The prediction model of Whittier Glacier shows a value of 1.0544 km² of losing ice area up to year 2030, a value of 2.2184 km² of retreat area up to 2050, a value of 3.9704 km² up to 2080, and a value of 5.1524 km² up to 2100. We estimate a total loss ice volume related to this melting area of 0.3393 km³. The future scenario indicates a glacier volume reduction of 84.89% up to 2050. These findings are useful for glaciologists, but also the paper contributes to Alaskan glaciers knowledge |full text|.
Groundwater Response to Changes in Precipitations in North-Eastern Romania
K e y w o r d s: climate changes, groundwater level, precipitation
Abstract. Changes in the climatic and hydrological variables in North-Eastern Romania indicate that the region has mostly a common evolution in terms of precipitation and hydrostatic level of groundwater. This can influence human communities in the region, given that sources of public water supply are predominantly from underground. In the analysed region with more than 8.000 sqm, 50% of the population lives in the rural area, where the main water supply source is provided by the underground water, mainly from individual wells with depths between 1 and 10 meters (only 10% from the rural population is connected to a centralized water supply system). That means the underground water resources are subject to overexploitation, especially given the prevailing economic activities associated with agriculture and construction involving high water consumption, predominantly from underground. Seasonal and annual data series of precipitation and hydrostatic level over a period of 31 years (1983-2014) and collected in 36 hydrogeological stations (73 wells) and three weather stations have been used. The trends were detected by employing Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope, and the correlation between the two variables was performed based on Bravais-Pearson correlation. The main results of the paper are: increasing trends are dominant both for annual and seasonal data sets of precipitation, but the great majority of the slopes detected are not statistically significant. In winter, precipitations have a decreasing trend and the slopes are statistically significant. In terms of hydrostatic level, most of the trends detected for near-surface wells are decreasing, while in depth, increasing trends are dominant; the most important change was seen in the deep gap between 200 and 300 cm; correlation between precipitation and hydrostatic level is stronger and more frequent for summer (more than 86% of pairs were found statistically significant) and autumn (more than 80%), and is fable and less frequent for spring and winter due to trans-seasonal distribution of precipitation |full text|.
Crop Evapotranspiration Variation Under Climate Change in South East Europe During 1991-2050
NISTOR Mărgărit-Mircea, RONCHETTI Francesco, CORSINI Alessandro, CHEVAL Sorin, DUMITRESCU Alexandru, KUMAR RAI Praveen, PETREA Dănuţ, DEZSI Ştefan
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 12, no. 2/2017, pp. 571-582
ISSN (online): 1842-4090
K e y w o r d s: climate change, crop evapotranspiration, land cover, crop coefficient, South East Europe
Abstract. The crop evapotranspiration computing is a complex matter from many points of view, but also it represents a useful parameter in hydrological and climate studies. Due to climate changes, the natural systems are coming to be negatively affected. The seasonal and annual crop evapotranspiration under current climate (1991-2020) and future climate (2021-2050) were analysed using the mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and mean monthly potential evapotranspiration for average of 30 years. The spatial distribution of crop evapotranspiration was calculated considering the evapotranspiration coefficients taken from literature using four stages of crops growth. Additionally, the absolute and relative changes of the annual crop evapotranspiration were carried out. The annual crop evapotranspiration varies in the actual period from 56 mm to 1297 mm, while in the future period the annual crop evapotranspiration varies from 59 mm to 1410 mm, which implies the impact of future climate warming on the crop evapotranspiration in the South East Europe. The heights values were identified in the South of Greece, in the southwestern sides of Romania, in the East sides of Bulgaria, Croatia and European Turkey. The maximum seasonal crop evapotranspiration were found in the mid-season, both for present and future. The minimum values of seasonal crop evapotranspiration were obtained in the cold season, when the mean air temperature and crop coefficients are lower. The absolute and relative changes indicate the high values in the South and southwestern sides of the South East Europe |full text|.
Tourist Market Segmentation by Motivation to Shop: A Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey
K e y w o r d s: shopping tourism, shopping motivation, market segmentation, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract. Previous research has indicated that shopping could make up for a significant part of the tourist experience and could provide significant benefits to destinations by contributing to local retail revenue and by generating many jobs. In order to design better marketing strategies, destination managers must understand what attracts tourists to a destination and makes them shop while there. However, tourists represent a heterogeneous group and subgroups of individuals are motivated to visit a destination for a variety of reasons. The primary purpose of this study is to segment tourist shoppers visiting Istanbul according to their motivation to shop. Five distinctive groups of ‘product-focused shoppers’, ‘shoppers for cultural experience’, ‘reluctant shoppers’, ‘difference seekers’ and ‘total shoppers’ were found and compared by the geographical origin of the tourists, their socio-demographic characteristics, travel characteristics and behaviour, primary motivation for the trip, activity participation and shopping preferences and attitudes. The findings indicate that destination marketers must develop their strategies and marketing products to address the heterogeneity of motivations underlying tourist shopping |full text|.
Tourists' Satisfaction with Shopping Experience Based on Reviews on TripAdvisor
K e y w o r d s: shopping tourism, shopping malls, shopping satisfaction, user-generated content, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract. Although generally not the primary reason for traveling, shopping is considered to be an important part of any tourists' experience. A well-developed, diverse and attractive retail sector could not only generate additional revenues and foreign currency to the local economy but could also contribute to increasing destination attractiveness. It is, then, important for local authorities and for tourism development planners to ensure that tourists are satisfi ed with their shopping experience at the destination. The goal of this study is to examine the international tourists' overall satisfaction with their shopping experience in Istanbul's modern retail centers and to identify the main reasons for their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Th e study will also determine whether or not international tourists' shopping experiences are infl uenced by their socio-demographic characteristics. Th e study is based on the quantitative and qualitative content analysis of reviews posted on TripAdvisor, the leading online travel community in the world. Our fi ndings show that international tourists are, in general, satisfi ed with their shopping experience in Istanbul's malls; however, the reviews also pointed out a number of shortcomings which need to be carefully analyzed and fi xed if the authorities intend to transform the city into a global shopping center. We could not document any statistically signifi cant diff erences between groups based on socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, shopping involvement or experience with online reviews. Only world region of origin and the grouping into western and non-western countries were found to be infl uential in determining statistically signifi cant diff erences, with tourists from developing countries being more satisfi ed than their counterparts from western countries |full text|.
Application of Tourism Destination Competitiveness Model on Rural Destinations
K e y w o r d s: tourism competitiveness, rural tourism, stakeholders’ perception, tourism market, Vojvodina Province
Abstract. Measuring competitiveness has become one of the key factors for ensuring successful and sustainable tourism development, especially destination's current level of development and its growth and vitality. The main goal of this study was to analyze the applicability of the Ritchie and Crouch competitiveness model in order to assess tourism advantages and disadvantages of Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia) as a rural tourism destination. Exactly 216 tourism stakeholders on the supply side that have the knowledge and/or experience relevant to this topic were interviewed. The results show that stakeholders believe that Vojvodina is not a competitive rural tourism destination, but some destination's advantages were identified, and they can be used for improving Vojvodina's position on rural tourism market. The research has shown that the key resources and the attractions of rural areas of Vojvodina are rated better than the macro and industry-related factors. In order that Vojvodina stands out in the competitive market, destination marketing is crucial and should be more closely focused on new products and market development |full text|.
Relational Analysis of Susceptibility to Landslides of Settlements Situated in the Eastern and Central Part of Alba Iulia Hinterland, Using GIS Technology and Maxent Software
K e y w o r d s: vulnerability, settlements, GIS, MaxEnt, Alba Iulia, hinterland, ROC curve
Abstract. Relational analysis is an important method to analyze, generate and to predict relevant data about natural or men-made hazards. In this study, we have chosen to investigate different relations between landslides and landslide causing factors, interpolating the results and their impact on settlements. Urban and rural settlements are highly prone to landsliding because of the increased population which lives in the affected territories. Therefore, an assessment of landslide susceptibility becomes an important phase to predict the most vulnerable settlements of a certain territory in order to implement different disaster mitigation plans/works and land planning strategies. Our study area has a high tendency to landslide due to its lithological and morphological structure. Thus, our purpose is to generate a reliable and accurate analysis of the settlements using the susceptibility map generated by the MaxEnt software, based on 8 identified landslide causing factors: slope angle, slope aspect, profile and plan curvature, terrain roughness, depth of fragmentation, precipitation and temperature. The resulted map indicates a high value of accuracy, the area under the curve (AUC] showing a high performance (0.925] of our analysis |full text|.
The Natural Environment and Tourism Potential of Iara-Hăşdate Basin
K e y w o r d s: Iara‐Hăşdate Basin, natural and anthropogenic tourism potential, gorges, defiles, cliffs
Abstract. Analzyed mainly from a natural perspective, the tourism potential of the area shows important characteristics providing favourable premises for tourism planning and development. The morphological, climatic bioclimatic, hydrological and biogeographical features of Iara-Hasdate Basin are investigated in order to create a detailed inventory of the natural resources with a specific tourism potential and to identify different types and forms of tourism which can be developed |full text|.
Gender and Age Group Structures in Mureș County, at the 2011 Census
K e y w o r d s: population, male, female, age groups, 2011 Census
Abstract. The importance of possessing knowledge regarding the above mentioned component stems from territorial demographic and social-economic planning. Thusly, we emphasized the population gender structure, starting with both genders (BG), followed by male (M) and female (F) populations. We then proceeded to examine age groups, according to the logical succession comprising young people (0-19 years of age), adults (20-59 years), and seniors (> 60 years). The demographic pyramid of Mureș County reveals the same aging process recorded at national level, with a regressive population, where young people register increasingly lower values, while elderly people are more numerous. Age group structure is also influenced by other exogenous factors, such as migration (internal and external]. The young urban population of Mureș County is lower (19.89%) than in rural areas (24.93%), while the latter areas have an older population (23%) compared to urban areas (21.72%). The adult population dominates all of the county's administrative-territorial units, the highest values having been recorded in urban settlements (58.39%), where the county seat, the city of Târgu Mureș, reigns supreme (60.08%), while rural areas registered an average of 52.09%, with higher values (above 60%) only in Corunca and Sângeorgiu de Mureș |full text|.
Urbanization Processes in the Kyrgyz Republic. Case Study: The City of Bishkek
K e y w o r d s: urbanization, sustainable development, agglomeration, unplanned urbanization, cities satellites plan
Abstract. In the Kyrgyz Republic the urban population is 34% and on its territory there are 31 cities at different levels. About 60% of the urban population lives in two cities - Bishkek (the capital) and Osh. At present, the urban population is about 1,987,000 inhabitants. The main specificity is that urbanization processes develop in a mountain territorial location. Urban areas are mostly located in valleys and low mountain areas, with the exception of some urban systems, which are located in the middle part. An important task at the moment is to find a solution for the socio-economic problems of small towns. In this regard, there is need for an integrated treatment of the inevitable new residential policy - shaping Bishkek agglomeration with surrounding satellite cities |full text|.
Housing Conditions in Kano, Nigeria: A Qualitative Assessment of Adequacy
K e y w o r d s: housing, qualitative adequacy, Kano, Nigeria, Africa, housing quality
Abstract. Many studies have attempted to assess the qualitative adequacy of housing in Nigeria. However, most of these studies focus either on slums or on public housing projects. There are very few empirical studies that examine and compare the qualitative adequacy of housing belonging to different population groups and from different neighborhoods in a city. The purpose of this study is to assess the housing quality in the (entire) city of Kano, Nigeria and to examine the disparities in housing adequacy across the city based on four factors: neighborhood density level, location of the neighborhood relative to the old city wall, monthly household income and ownership type and status. We found that, although bad by western standards, the condition of dwellings in Kano is better than in other Nigerian cities (based on information from previous studies), even when we consider only the high-density neighborhoods. Another major conclusion of this paper is that the four indicators mentioned earlier can be used as predictors for the quality of housing in a particular neighborhood |full text|.
Creativity and Innovation in Urban Central and Eastern Europe. Focus on Kickstarter Initiatives
K e y w o r d s: innovation, creative class, Kickstarter, urban, Central and Eastern Europe
Abstract. The concepts of innovation and creativity, as well as the territorial construct of city, have been, especially in the last few decades, the focus of an unprecendented and concerted scientific effort from all over the world. Many geographers, economists and urban planners studied how such a notions shape the fabric of urban areas and how they help them grow and develop. Kickstarter is an element of this triad, an innovative online platform which enables people to express their creativity and help gain funding for their ideas. This paper examines the Kickstarter projects launched in the 7 largest cities of three Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary), plot their distribution and attempt to see territorial patterns in their distribution across the urban areas of this part of the European Union and Europe itself |full text|.
Tourists' Satisfaction with Shopping Experience Based on Reviews on TripAdvisor
K e y w o r d s: islamic banking, participation banks, Turkey, bank selection criteria, attitudes towards islamic banks, prospects for development
Abstract. Islamic banks have, over the last few decades, become very popular in the Gulf countries and in some countries in Southeast Asia with a majority Muslim population. They are on the rise even in some western cities such as London or New York which have witnessed a significant increase in their Muslim population. In this context, it is then surprising to see that in Turkey, a country in which almost 100% of the population is Muslim, the Islamic banking system is still in its incipient stage. This study has investigated the reasons for the underdevelopment of the Islamic banking system in Turkey. We found that, due to the long period of secularism, most Turks separate religion from business and select their bank based on financial advantages, diversity of financial products and quality of service rather than based on the need to adhere to Shari’a principles. Many people also do not trust that these institutions are really Shari’a-compliant and safe. This is partly due to the customers’ lack of understanding of how these banks operate and partly due to the numerous cases of bad practices reported by the media and the academic literature. We conclude that, while their assets and share will most probably increase over the next 10 years it seems very unlikely that Islamic banks will really become a sustainable alternative banking system in Turkey. The Islamic banking system will rather remain an additional or complementary banking system |full text|.
Representations of Local Identity through Landmarks: The Rehabilitation of Rupea Fortress, Romania
K e y w o r d s: rehabilitation, fortifications, local identity, Rupea Fortress
Abstract. Over the centuries a community’s built heritage was shaped according to the members’ needs and skills, using the available resources, making it comparable to a palimpsest on which the evidence of every change was preserved in distinct layers. Based on historical documents, illustrations and recent observations, the purpose of this approach is to increase the level of understanding and preservation of historical monuments with their rich cultural significance, using as an example the less known, recently rehabilitated Rupea Fortress, in Brașov County. It is clear that the rehabilitation was focused exclusively on the technical side, proved by the lack of a well managed tour guide system with authorised guides and the lack of additional studies to the main project, making this approach well timed. The basalt cliff on which the fortress was strategically built is also a natural monument (IUCN Category III), considered as a geological heritage itself, increasing the uniqueness of this representative historic site. The distinctive perceptual skyline of this landmarks is part of the collective memory, local history and identity which justifies all the conservation and research efforts for the future generations, as part of long-term and sustainable development |full text|.
How Green are Romania’s Cities? A Quarter - Century of Green Area Policy
K e y w o r d s: green areas, urban, county capital city, policy, planning
Abstract. Green areas are one of the most essential - but more often than not overlooked by planners, officials, and local governments - functional parts of a city. This paper examines the evolution of such zones in 42 of the most important urban areas of Romania (the county capital cities) focusing on two years, 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the paper links the evolution of green area developments to different legislative policies and planning practices that emerged after the fall of communism and the emergence of capitalism in this part of Europe. We conclude that the apparent expansion of green areas masks an unfortunate and somewhat dangerous situation, as a quarter of a century of territorial, regional, and local planning has failed to create not only good public green areas, but also enough square meters compared to built areas. Solutions can be found in improving the existing legislation and implementing new, more steadfast urban development schemes that put green areas at their very core |full text|.
Future Changes in Extreme Temperature Indices in Cluj-Napoca, Romania
K e y w o r d s: climate change, extreme temperature indices, bias correction, regional climate models, Cluj-Napoca
Abstract. At present, research in climatology is mainly focusing on climate change and especially on global warming. Since climate change is already affecting large areas worldwide, it is important to study in details these changes at regional and local scale and to reduce its negative impact. The aim of this study is to analyze changes on extreme temperature indices over the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 in Cluj-Napoca city using a set of 21 indices recommended by Expert Team for Climate Change Detection Monitoring and Indices. Extreme temperature indices for observed and modeled data were calculated by employing ClimPACT2 software. Modeled data for daily minimum and maximum temperature was extracted from EURO-CORDEX Project database. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of three regional climate models (RACMO22E, RCA4, and WRF331F) were considered. Next we compared the average values of the historical period (1981-2010) with the 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods for each scenario (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) in order to obtain the future changes. The result of this study shows major changes for all the analyzed indices. The period 2071-2100 presents the highest changes under both analyzed scenarios |full text|.
Tourism and Polycentric Development Based on Health and Recreational Tourism Supply
K e y w o r d s: polycentricity, compatibility, Moineşti, Băişoara, cooperation
Abstract. This article outlined a polycentric development scenario through tourism within the balneary area of Bacău County and the rural-mountain area of Cluj County. Using research methods like analysis, comparison, cartographic, graphic techniques, the results concluded that within Bacău’s balneary area, Moineşti could specialise in climatotherapy, Târgu Ocna in saline microclimate, and Slănic Moldova in hydrotherapy; whereas within Cluj’s rural-mountain area, Muntele Băişorii should continue to rely on winter sports tourism, Beliş-Fântânele on water-based tourism, and Răchiţele on nature-based tourism. Thus, the participation of each centre to the general supply enabled the pursued tourist-functional cooperation, following the principles of polycentric development |full text|.
Detection of Atmospheric Urban Heat Island through Direct Measurements in Cluj--Napoca City, Romania
K e y w o r d s: heat wave, climate change, percentile threshold, spatial distribution, Romania
Abstract. In the last two decades many climate change studies have focused on extreme temperatures as they have a significant impact on environment and society. Among the weather events generated by extreme temperatures, heat waves are some of the most harmful. The main objective of this study was to detect and analyze changes in heat waves in Romania based on daily observation data (maximum and minimum temperature) over the extended summer period (May–Sept) using a set of 10 indices and to explore the spatial patterns of changes. Heat wave data serieswere derived fromdaily maximumand minimumtemperature data sets recorded in 29weather stations across Romania over a 55-year period (1961–2015). In this study, the threshold chosenwas the 90th percentile calculated based on a 15-day window centered on each calendar day, and for three baseline periods (1961–1990, 1971–2000, and 1981–2010). Two heat wave definitions were considered: at least three consecutive days when maximum temperature exceeds 90th percentile, and at least three consecutive days when minimum temperature exceeds 90th percentile. For each of them, five variables were calculated: amplitude, magnitude, number of events, duration, and frequency. Finally, 10 indices resulted for further analysis. The main results are:most of the indices have statistically significant increasing trends; only one index for oneweather station indicated statistically significant decreasing trend; the changes are more intense in case of heat waves detected based on maximum temperature compared to those obtained for heat waves identified based on minimum temperature; western and central regions of Romania are the most exposed to increasing heat waves |full text|.
Detection of Atmospheric Urban Heat Island through Direct Measurements in Cluj--Napoca City, Romania
K e y w o r d s: atmospheric urban heat island, direct measurements, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Abstract. In the last decades, cities worldwide have experienced accelerated development, so that continuous urbanization and its impact is presently one of the most important topics in diff erent fi elds of research. The main aim of this study is to identify the intensity of the atmospheric urban heat island in Cluj-Napoca city, through direct observations campaigns by using fi xed points and transect measurements. The data has been collected over a period of 6 months (May–October 2015). The measurements have been performed mainly in anti-cyclonic weather condition, during the night, between 23:00 and 03:00. The profi les trajectories followed the main roads of the city on directions North–South, East–West, and Northwest–Southeast. 8 fi xed points have been chosen in order to highlight best the temperature patt erns in diff erent Local Climate Zones (LCZs). The main findings of the study are the followings: the direct observations performed in three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) revealed the existence of an atmospheric urban heat island in Cluj-Napoca city; the warmest areas are compact high-rise and compact midrise, located in the eastern half of the city, where the temperature increases by more than 2.0 °C, as average value for all campaigns, but the maximum values, recorded in the summer are higher than 3.0 °C; the coolest areas are sparsely built areas and the large low-rise/water areas, where the temperature is quite similar to that recorded in the nearby rural areas (diff erence of 0.0–0.1 °C, as average values); local factors, such as mountain breeze and topography have a great impact on the atmospheric urban heat island confi guration |full text|.
Occurrence and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Tisza River and its Romanian Tributaries
K e y w o r d s: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. river water, sediment, PAH diagnostic ratios, petrogenic, pyrogenic
Abstract. The aim of this work is to assess the occurrence of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tisza River and its main Romanian tributaries (Vişeu River and Iza River) and to establish the origin (pyrogenic/petrogenic) of pollution sources. Fifteen PAHs were investigated in surface water and sediment samples collected from three selected sampling point. The target compounds were isolated from the matrices by solid phase extraction for water samples and by ultrasoundassisted extraction for the sediment samples, respectively. The quantification of the target compounds was performed by HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector. PAH diagnostic ratios, as the abundance ratio of 2–3 ring hydrocarbons to 4–6 ring hydrocarbons (LMW/HMW), ANT/(ANT + PHE), FLT/(FLT + PYR), B[a]A/(B[a]A + CHR), and IND/(IND+ B[g, h, i]P) were used as a tool for identification and assessment of the pollution emission sources. The results of the study showed that in the studied area, the total concentrations of PAHs detected in water samples ranged from 1.22 to 260.26 ng L−1, while those in sediment samples varied from 4.94 to 10.62 μg kg−1. Regarding the PAH pattern, mixed sources of pollution (pyrogenic and petrogenic) occur in both water and sediment samples. Thus, leaks of petroleum products and biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion are the main sources of pollution identified into the studied area |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: precipitation, extreme precipitation index, climate change, Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope, Romania
Abstract. Changes in daily extreme precipitation have been identified in many studies conducted at local, regional, or global scales. In Romania, little research on this issue has been done. The present study focuses on the analysis of the trends in daily extreme precipitation indices over a period of 53 years (1961–2013). Data sets of daily precipitation recorded in 34 weather stations were analyzed. Among them, three are located in the Carpathians and four on the Black Sea Coast. The main goal was to find out changes in extreme daily precipitation using a set of 13 indices adopted from the core indices developed by ETCCDMI adapted to suit to the studied area. The series of indices and their trends were generated using RClimDex software. The trends have been calculated by employing modified Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope. Generally, the climate of Romania has become wetter over the 53-yr period considered, especially in the northern regions, although the spatial distribution of the significant trend slopes in the area is extremely irregular. Based on fixed threshold indices analysis, extreme precipitation events are characterized by a decreasing in the total number of precipitation days (R0.1), and a dominant increasing trend for the number of isolated days with moderate and heavy precipitation (R5, R10) |full text|.
Altitudinal Changes of Summer Air Temperature Trends in the Romanian Carpathians Based on Serially Correlated Models
K e y w o r d s: climate, temperature, altitude, change-point, trend
Abstract. This paper investigates the relationship between altitude and summer temperature trends in the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. We considered 20 weather stations and three types of topography: summit, slope and depression. We used a change-point regression model with serially correlated errors and compared it with a mainstream literature change-point model with independent errors. For both models, we identified decreasing trends before the change-point and increasing trends afterwards for most summer temperature series. The model with serially correlated errors gives change-points and trends that are more variable for lower altitude and more similar with each other at higher altitudes. One of the possible factors explaining this behavior is that temperatures from some weather stations in depression areas may be influenced by human settlings and industrial activities, and this influence would dissipate with altitude. On the other hand, the model with independent errors shows no pattern in the variability of change points or trends. The cluster analysis also reveals that weather stations are best grouped by altitude |full text|.
Climate Change Effects on Crop Evapotranspiration in the Carpathian Region from 1961 to 2010
K e y w o r d s: crop evapotranspiration, climate change, land cover, seasonal, Carpathian Region
Abstract. In this study, the annual and seasonal crop evapotranspiration at the spatial level of the Carpathian Region were evaluated over 1961–2010. The temperature, precipitation and actual evapotranspiration grid monthly climate data and land cover were analysed and processed on a seasonal basis to compute the annual crop evapotranspiration. The land cover evapotranspiration rate was assigned through evapotranspiration coefficients from the literature. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, such as conversions from vector to raster data and the ‘Raster Calculator’ function, were used to assess the spatial distribution of the crop evapotranspiration at a regional scale. In particular, two datasets from different periods (1961–1990 and 1990–2010) were used to compute the seasonal and annual crop evapotranspiration for the Carpathian region. The results of climate parameters indicate a rise in temperature and crop evapotranspiration values between the first and the second period. In addition, significant spatial changes were observed with a shift of maximum values from south to north |full text|.
Approaching the Other in the Zipser Community: Identity Issues and Methodological Insights into Geographical Cross-Cultural Research
K e y w o r d s: methodology, identity, alterity, Zipsers, qualitative approach
Abstract. The present paper explores aspects of identity and research methodology in the context of ethnic diversity and of the history of the Zipser community, a German-speaking ethnic group. The aim of our paper was that of presenting the Zipser community in the framework of an example of good practice for geographical cross-cultural research, with a focus on the way in which we convinced respondents to take part in it. Using this case study, we clearly showed that for geographical cross-cultural research the method is as significant as the result, hence the need to pay attention to circumstances, to the researcher-respondent interaction, to their personal traits, etc., as all these impact the type and especially the quality of the obtained information. Although geographical cross-cultural research is difficult to approach and implement, in the end we had enough proof that researchers that want to conduct it should develop certain competences. To sum up, the main feature of geographical cross-cultural research is the central place of the researchers’ experience and the respondents’ interpretation or vision, which result in many advantages among which the most significant one is the exchange of qualitative information. In addition, we offered suggestions about planning field research under similar circumstances, but especially for the Zipser community |full text|.
Tourism as a Driving Force in Rural Development? Results of a Comparison of Case Studies in Romania and Austria
K e y w o r d s: tourism, rural development, Romania, Austria
Abstract. Th is paper is the outcome of a bilateral Romanian-Austrian research project on new and innovative initiatives in rural development. It was the aim of the study to identify success factors of strategies applied and to verify their transferability. Th is article presents results related to the role of tourism in rural development in a comparative way focusing on the following main aspects: (1) tourism potential in the sense of (used or unused) opportunities on the background of current touristic demand (including main tourism trends); (2) current touristic off er; (3) current touristic demand; (4) perspectives of further (touristic and extra-touristic) development. It then also asks for (5) the relation between endogeneous and exogenous factors in developing tourism; (6) eff ects of tourism on local population and general local development; (7) basic success factors for initiatives in tourism, but also in other fi elds as well as (8) main diff erences in rural development, especially by tourism, between the Romanian and the Austrian cases |full text|.
Tourism Potential Value Assessment Model for Rural-Mountain and Boundary Contact Areas. Case Study: Cluj County, the District of Ciceu and the Balneal Area of Bacău County (Romania)
K e y w o r d s: tourist resources, tourism infrastructure, tourist categories, tourism supply, territorial-administrative units
Abstract. This paper aimed to develop a specific assessment method focused on the tourism potential of the rural-mountain and boundary contact areas. Once elaborated, the model was employed within three appropriate territories of Cluj, Bistrița and Bacău counties (Romania), who’s investigated administrative units, were repeatedly ranked into hierarchical order according to the different tourist categories, invested with numerical values. In order to reach its goals, several objectives were assigned, from awarding the components of the primary and secondary tourism supply certain scores, proposing scales and calculating values, to comparing the results and identifying best rated tourism potential categories, units and areas. With respect to the research methodology, the most commonly used methods dealt with observation, analysis and synthesis along with comparison, cartographical, statistical and mathematical techniques. Therefore, main results regarded both proposal and testing the evaluation model, highlighting values and ranging territorial units in concordance with the tourist attractiveness power |full text|.
Introducing Disparity Abatement of Social-Cultural Attractors in the Western Part of Târgu Jiu Municipality
K e y w o r d s: social-cultural attractors, social and urban development, discrepancy reduction
Abstract. The municipality of Târgu Jiu, as an ensemble of urban space organization, is strictly dependent on the physical environment in which it is located, starting with relief, hydrography and so on. The peri-central part of the city hada developed the urban tissue poorly at the start of the 19th century, with a deficient historical, cultural and architectural load. Landscape improvement owes heavily to the central axis of the city, represented by the "Calea Eroilor" Cultural Ensemble, which brings a touch of uniqueness to the urban context. The article hopes to emphasize the discrepancies between the two banks of the River Jiu, which are extremely contrasting from both an architectural and a functional points of view. The left bank has administrative and architectural roles, while the right side is a former industrial area. In its entirety, the project aims to combine the two components, economic and social. The existing patrimony will help bring a harmonization and anew dynamic to the western part of the city, in terms of profits as well as in terms of the social course. The urban structure of the city as a whole must correspond to a territorial harmony and operational status so that a revitalization of the analysed area can transform the entire city. The specific objectives are the increase in real-estate action in the implementation area and developing the infrastructure, which will eventually lead to more entrepreneurial activities for a sustainable development |full text|.
The Gender and Age Structure of the Population of Covasna County, at the 2011 Census
K e y w o r d s: population, male, female, age groups, 2011 Census
Abstract. This study presents a synthesis regarding the territorial distribution of the gender and age structure of the population in Covasna County, in 2011. We began by reviewing the characteristics regarding gender structure, and both genders (BG), followed by the male population (M) and the female population (F), as well as the age groups, beginning with young people (0-19 years), adults (20-59 years) and ending with the elderly, over 60 years. Moreover, for a clearer view of the male to female population ratio, we employed the most suggestive indicator, the feminity index |full text|.
Gender and Age Group Structure in Harghita County, at the 2011 Census
K e y w o r d s: population, male, female, age groups, 2011 Census
Abstract. The study at hand aims to present the gender and age structure of the population of Harghita County, recorded at the 2011 Census. For better emphasis, following geographical logic, we shall commence by bringing forward the essential characteristics of gender structure, more exactly both genders (BG), followed by the male population (M) and the female population (F), as well as age groups, encompassing the 0-19 group (young people), 20-59 group (adult) and the over 60 group (elderly). The data is first presented at the larger territorial level, then the analysis shifts focus towards the evolution of each administrativeterritorial unit’s population, as well as the urban-rural situation |full text|.
The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?
K e y w o r d s: tourism development strategy, mineral water springs, health tourism, transport infrastructure, tourist arrivals, North-East Development Region
Abstract. Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional, or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detailed and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Development Region of Romania, the fifth less developed region of the European Union, with a GDP per capita (in purchasing power standard) that amounted to only 34% of the EU-28 average in 2013, rushes to come with a tourism development strategy relying on “relief and environmental factors, diversity and beauty of landscape, cultural heritage”, strengthening the specific offers relying especially on mountain, cultural, and religious tourism. The present study uses multiple research methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis, synthesis, graphical and cartographical representation of data, comparison) in order to establish the reliability of the concerned document and to provide solid arguments for the type of tourism that has the largest premises of affirmation in each county of the North-East Region of Romania |full text|.
Redrawing Historical Illustrations in Research of Genuine Urban Features
K e y w o r d s: historical illustrations, urban planning, representation, urban identity, Cluj-Napoca
Abstract. As a part of an extensive qualitative research, using historical illustrations of all kinds was strongly encouraged by the recent improvements in graphics software; once rarely seen documents and illustrations are now available in an infinite number of virtual copies, ready for restoration, interpretation, and assessments. The interest for historical illustrations is more pronounced in marketing, when a local brand or a product is promoted by the local history, often using the past as a reminder of the bonds between inhabitants and places. However, the most popular way to use historical illustrations can be found in art, while the main purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of these pictures, maps and documents in urban research and planning. In this paper, we recommend a path to reduce subjectivity while using historical illustrations and the practical results that can be achieved |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: settlement dissapearance, depopulation, evolution stages, typology of dissapeared villages, built-up area, functional transformation, functionality and decline of human settlement
Abstract. Settlement development is a continuous process significantly influenced by population dynamics. Population decrease through migration and low birth rate has become an issue at European level, and in the case of Romanian rural areas the situation proves even more severe. The aim of our study is to analyse the evolution of rural settlements from emergence to decline based on a seven-stage development cycle and emphasize on the phenomenon of rural settlement disappearance in Romania after 1990. Results show that even without first-sight visible or significant effects at national level, the number of rural settlements that have disappeared is continuously increasing, therefore becoming an issue for the development of rural areas. Particularities of the current condition of the built-up area of each of the analysed villages revealed various levels of destruction from incipient decline (whole built-up area) to total collapse (very few remains of the built-up area, and even incorporated in the natural environment). We thus create a typology of disintegrated villages, which are currently found at national level and we reveal their administrative and geographical distribution. We conclude that settlement evolution and the risk of their disappearance should be on the shortlist of priorities of the national policies, strategies and projects designed for the development and planning of rural areas |full text|.
The Exploitation of the Tulgheș-Grințieș Uranium Deposit. Between Benefits and Controversy
K e y w o r d s: uranium, radioactivity, Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Tulgheș, Grințieș
Abstract. Romania is one of the few European states (alongside the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ukraine] and one of the few in the world with uranium deposits (Canada, Australia, Niger, Namibia are others), mainly used in the energy sector. According to recent studies, the only currently exploited deposit (Crucea-Botusana, Suceava County) is nearly depleted (by 2019) and will be eventually shut down. For this reason, there are plans to open a new uranium mining facility in the Tulghes-Grinties area, where geological surveys have proven that the area holds the largest uranium deposit in the country. It will provide the necessary fuel for Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, for the two functional reactors, which have a total capacity of 706 MW each (producing roughly 18% of the country's electricity needs], as well as for units 3 and 4, not operational yet. The study at hand intends to emphasize several aspects regarding the exploitation possibilities for the uranium deposit from the two mineralized structures located in the fracture areas of the central Carpathian line, through which the crystalline overflows the Cretaceous Flysch. Furthermore, the environmental impact analysis as well as the long term safety and security of the population inhabiting the area will be of utmost importance |full text|.
Transport Accessibility as a Factor for Tourism Flow Augmentation. Case Study: The Romanian Health Resorts
Abstract. Romanian health tourism represents a major chance of economic increase because it has all the necessary premises for development and for registering some of the most efficient revenues. Therefore, by using a complex methodology, we first aimed to reveal the current situation of each of the Romanian health resorts in terms of transport accessibility. Each type of transport communication system (road, railway and aerial) was analyzed by taking into account the connections to the European and national roads, primary and secondary railways, airports, aiming to pinpoint to what extent the level of accessibility of a resort influences the tourist flow. The second goal was to reveal if transport accessibility could condition the tourist flow towards the Romanian health resorts, by operating several correlations between accessibility situation and tourist arrivals, overnights, tourist traffic density, and the net use index of accommodation capacity of each Romanian health resort. The results highlighted that health resorts situated in the Carpathian area presented the lowest level of transport accessibility. However, the influence on the tourist flow of Romanian health resorts proved very low, since the development of these resorts depended entirely on the health factors provided by the area and the historical circumstances, all based on the fact that the specific nature of health tourism requires a more secluded placement. The exceptions enumerate the resorts situated on the seaside of the Black Sea, Prahova Valley, Transylvania and Crișana areas |full text|.
Indexing the Innovative Capability of Romanian NUTS 3 (Counties) Subdivisions
K e y w o r d s: innovation index, aggregate, counties, Romania, skewness
Abstract. Creating an innovation aggregate index for Romania is a challenging task, partly due to the lack of the necessary statistical data, but also due to the absence of officially registered data at local administrative unit level. In spite of this deficiency, we will put forward an innovation index comprised of several indicators originating from the data banks of the National Institute of Statistics and the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks, for the county subdivisions of the Romanian territory. Our results point out, as expected, to an extremely heterogeneous and unequal situation, with only a handful of counties above the national average and thus presenting a positive skewness of the aggregate data |full text|.
The Climatology of Atmospheric Fronts Crossing Cluj-Napoca City and the Weather Associated
K e y w o r d s: atmospheric fronts, meteorological variables, synoptic analysis, Cluj-Napoca
Abstract. In this paper the evolution of weather patterns by tracking various weather variables change as a result of frontal passages through the area of Cluj-Napoca city was investigated, over a period of 10 years (2001 – 2010). The study is focused on warm and cold fronts, while other types of atmospheric fronts have not been considered for this study. Hourly air temperature, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed have been analyzed. The main conclusions of the study are: the lowest number of atmospheric fronts charaterizes the summer, and especially the last weeks of summer and the first weeks of the autumn, because of the high frequency of anticyclone regime which is dominant over that period, while the most are specific to spring season; the most intense changes in weather parameters (>10.1oC, >10.1 hPa) are much less frequent compared to the moderate (5.1 - 10.0oC, 5.1 - 10.0 hPa) and small ones (0.0 - 5.0oC, 0.0 - 5.0 hPa); the warm fronts had the highest occurrence frequency between 06:00 and 12:00 UTC and the cold fronts between 18:00 and 00:00 UTC |full text|.
Vulnerability Assessment Methodology: A Tool for Policy Makers in Drafting a Sustainable Development Strategy of Rural Mining Settlements in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania
K e y w o r d s: vulnerability Rural mining settlements Regional policies Sustainable development strategy
Abstract. Mining settlements are hierarchically integrated in a system of localities at local, county, micro-regional, regional, national, European and even global level. Therefore, this study has a holistic approach to understanding and analyzing the territorial, social, economic or envi- ronmental regeneration and development processes as well as the vulnerability degree of selected mining settlements of the Apuseni Mountains located in the north-western part of Romania. The paper has a twofold purpose. First, it aims to contribute to the ongoing process of geographical and environmental research conducted in Romania by proposing new method- ologies developed based on available data and an in-depth analysis of the local issues by linking regional, national, and international models. Second, it aims to facilitate the decision-making processbydevelopinga toolusefulinthe planningand sustainabledevelopmentofthe Apuseni Mountainsat multiple scales(local, county and regional).Inorder toaddress current challenges faced by the selected area, the authors propose a novel calculation methodology for the vulnerability of the mining settlements and use GIS technology to elaborate a geospatial database and vulnerability map of the mining villages. Correlated data provided a vulnerability assessment method for rural settlements that might help facilitate the identification of feasible sustainable development solutions and serve as a tool for policy makers in drafting an integrated sustainable development strategy. The results reveal the importance of an integrat- ed approach of the vulnerabilities occurring in rural settlements, especially the mining ones |full text|.
The Use of Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) in Assessing the Environmental Impacts in Protected Areas. Case Study: Mountain Glacial Lakes Areas in Romania
K e y w o r d s: mountain glacial lakes, environmental impact assessment, RIAM method, Romanian Carpathians
Abstract. The long-range impacts of various air pollutants attributed to industrial activities, pressures of climate changes, constitute a general threat for mountain areas. In some cases a more localized but sometimes intense cluster of impacts originate from local activities-economic exploitation and tourism. Protected mountain areas are subjected to various pressures ranging from illegal resources exploitation to pressures generated by touristic activities. Glacial mountain lakes are exposed to local and long-range originated environmental pressures and due to their high vulnerability and susceptibility to changes, and can act as environmental sensors recording and forecasting any adverse impact created by natural and/or anthropogenic factors. Environmental impacts were comparatively assessed in three areas in the Carpathian Mountains, mountain areas characterized and influenced by the presence of mountain lakes: Rodnei Mountains (Buhăiescu and Iezerul Pietrosului lakes), Făgăraș Mountains (Bâlea and Călțun lakes) and Retezat Mountains (Bucura and Galeș lakes). Identified impacts were aggregated by using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) (adapted version) structured on 4 components: physical/chemical, biological/ecological, social/cultural, and economic/operational. An in-depth comparative analysis was performed on these glacial lakes areas located in Romanian Carpathian Mountains. The results allowed a common base impact assessment in the purpose of improving the management measures |full text|.
Vulnerability of Groundwater Under Climate Change and Land Cover: A New Spatial Assessment Method Applied on Beliş District (Western Carpathians, Romania)
K e y w o r d s: climate change, GIS method, groundwater vulnerability, land cover, vulnerability
Abstract. A new assessment method of groundwater vulnerability was done using multilayer data analysis through GIS Spatial Analyst Tools. The method presented here refers at Beliș district territory and describes two tasks: (1) groundwater vulnerability determination from Water Surplus, Ecosystem Services, Aquifers map, and Infiltration map; (2) the future vulnerability assessment for 2050, considering four scenarios of land cover and climate data changes. First results, carried out by proposed method, show a very high vulnerability area of 2.44 km2 and a high vulnerability area of 24.09 km2 in Beliș district. The projections of land cover and climate data came to estimate the vulnerability of groundwater in 2050. Thus, the area of 3.02 km2, with highest vulnerability was found in scenario 2, under localities area increase and precipitation decrease. The findings demonstrate that both climate change and land cover are responsible for groundwater vulnerability. Further, the vulnerability mapping and land cover scenarios could be useful for delimitations of protected areas and development of plans’ management |full text|.
Comparative studies on antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. leaves
K e y w o r d s: Lycium barbarum, Lycium chinense, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, EPR
Abstract. The purpose of this research was to bring new data regarding the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of L. barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The determination of the main polyphenolic compounds was performed using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The dominant compound found for both species was rutin, with its highest amount registered in L. chinense (24141.90±21.3μg/g plant material) leaves. Among the flavonoidic aglycones, quercetin was found in both samples, being quantified in a higher amount in L. chinense. In the antioxidant assays, both extracts exhibited important antioxidant activities, as witnessed by the three methods, both correlated with their total polyphenolic content |full text|.
Traditions, Adaptability and Trends: A Review of Higher Education and Research Tendencies in Tourism Geography in Romania
K e y w o r d s: tourism, tourism Geography, tourism geographical research, geographical school of tourism
Abstract. This paper provides an overview of the tourism supply in Romania, the research on the phenomenon of tourism, as well as the development of the higher education system in the field of Tourism Geography. Also, the paper presents the main development stages of this field of study starting with the research and capitalization of the natural resources (the research and capitalization of the mineral and thermal waters can provide an accurate example in this case) and of some existing anthropogenic elements. The research includes different thematic studies, based on thorough documentation. The resulting contributions were presented in different national and international scientific events. A special part is dedicated to the research and higher education developed in the field of tourism within Babeş-Bolyai University, at the Faculty of Geography in Cluj-Napoca. The vast and diverse bibliographical references include theoretical and applicative articles and studies, as well as monographic studies and doctoral theses |full text|.
The GIS Assessment of a Winter Sports Resort Location. Case Study: Beliș District, Western Carpathians
DEZSI Ștefan, NISTOR Mărgărit-Mircea, MAN Titus, RUSU Raularian
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1/2015, pp. 223-230
ISSN (online): 1842-4090
K e y w o r d s: spatial analysis, GIS, ski tracks, winter resort, suitability, Beliș District, Western Carpathians
Abstract. The role played by the tourism infrastructure in the territorial development of specific areas remains debated, especially for the small municipalities located in marginal areas. This paper suggests an analysis model which predicts the best location for the planning of a ski resort. This model was tested and applied in Beliş District – Western Carpathians. The relationships between environment, natural heritage and resources for the six settlements comprised in Beliş District were analysed using GIS and specific spatial analysis methods. The analysis included four steps: (i) the setting up of the spatial database; (ii) the computation of the closest distance to localities, tourist attraction points and possible ski-tracks; (iii) the reclassification of the raster data; (iv) the combination of the datasets using raster calculator. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis and vertical aerial photographs, several hundred possible ski tracks distributed among twelve areas in Beliş District were identified. The results show that the south-central part of the studied area represents the ideal territory for the winter resort location. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a methodological approach that may be applied to different mountain areas |full text|.
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson Leaves
DEZSI Ștefan, BĂDĂRĂU Alexandru Sabin, BISCHIN Cristina, VODNAR Dan Cristian, SILAGHI-DUMITRESCU Radu, GHELDIU Ana-Maria, MOCAN Andrei, VLASE Laurian Molecules, vol. 20, no. 3/2015, pp. 4720-4734
ISSN (online): 1420-3049
K e y w o r d s: Eucalyptus globulus, Corymbia ficifolia, antimicrobial, antioxidants, phenolics
Abstract. This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the phenolic profile of Eucalytus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves. Both leave extracts contain significant
amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC/MS method. The main flavonoid was hyperoside and its highest amount was found in E. globulus (666.42 ± 5.02 μg/g dw
plant material). Regarding the flavonol profile, myricetin was the dominant compound and its highest amount was found in C. ficifolia leaves (124.46 ± 0.24 μg/g dw plant material). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome cassays, revealing an important antioxidant potential for both species. In the antimicrobial assays, C. ficifolia extract was found to be more active than E. globulus against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of Bacillus subtilis. The results of the present study provide new valuable data regarding the bioactivities of these medicinal species |full text|.
Self-Organization of Geosystems. is There and to What Extent?
K e y w o r d s: self-organization, geosystems, complex systems, gradient, entropy
Abstract. Our study addresses the concept of self-organization of geosystems, arguing for its existence, how it manifests and what are the main forces that generate it. We then illustrate self-organization through its main traits and debate on how these features of natural spatial self-organization should be integrated into the process of spatial planning. We argued in favor of paradigm shift, in case self-organization concept would be assimilated in the study of geographical space organization. This paradigm shift would lead to a change of approach of the relation between people and society with the geographical space, which should be of subordination in relation with natural phenomena and processes. This new vision on the geographical reality can and may represent the framework for the seeds of new-oriented thinking on planning and designing development and future |full text|.
On the Relationship Between Geosystemic Self-Organization and Spatial Planning
K e y w o r d s: self-organization, spatial planning, geosystem, functional integration
Abstract. The aim of this study is to argue for the existence and acknowledgement of an implicit relationship between geosystemic self-organization and spatial planning. This one-way relationship should develop as correspondence and subordination for the harmonious integration of sociosystems into the geosystems. Based on the role and influence of self-organization, and the fact the sociosystemic organization is tributary to the geosystemic organization under any circumstances, we formulate several significant guidelines for better future urban and rural territorial design, to avoid disturbances in the geographical space that would trigger coercive adjustments of other components. Thus, we bring forward the fundamental idea of functional integration of planning and self-organization to guarantee the harmonious integration of man-made structures into the geosystem and assure the permanence of humanity in the next future |full text|.
Leadership and Regeneration of the Transylvanian Villages in the Region of Rupea
K e y w o r d s: local leadership, rural development, local identity
Abstract. Parmi les tendances récentes de la recherche géographique il y a l’étude du rôle du leadership formel et informel dans la régénération des zones marginales ou en déclin. Dans cet article, nous présentons une étude sur une région rurale de la Roumanie (quelle de la ville de Rupea), qui a été fortement affectée par la transition sociale et économique de le Pays, qui a eu lieu dans des années ’90, et qui est situé dans une zone économiquement déprimée. L’analyse de la situation actuelle démontre la nécessité de poursuivre les initiatives de leadership dans ce territoire; en fait, ils jouent un rôle important dans la conservation des caractéristiques du paysage culturel (en particulier le patrimoine bâti) et pour la régénération économique et sociale durable des les contextes locales |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: Banat, marginality, rural isolated areas, declining industrial areas
Abstract. Banat region is historically located between the rivers Danube, Tisa and Mureş, on three sides, and the Carpathians. This analysis focuses only on the Romanian Banat. After the December 1989 Revolution which started in Timişoara, the regional capital of Banat, the transition to the market economy and the recent economic crisis has severely struck the pillars of local economy in many parts of the region: agriculture and mining. According to a number of well-known criteria, the paper identifies and analyzes the marginal areas of the region: rural isolated areas such as Lipova Hills and Almăj Land, mining and industrial regions like Reşiţa-Bocşa-Anina, Poiana Ruscă Mountains and Bistra Valley. The rural areas lack accessibility and have an autarchic economy based on agriculture. The former industrial regions are characterised by high rates of unemployment and a decline in the living standards. The consequences are mainly the same: emigration, low birth rates, demographic ageing, socio-economic instability |full text|.
History and Tourist Valorization of the Rușchița Marble Quarry (Caras-Severin County, Romania)
K e y w o r d s: Rușchița, marble quarry, history, tourist valorization
Abstract. With an area of over 40 ha, the marble quarry located north of Ruschita village, Rusca Montana commune, Caras-Severin County is the largest exploitation perimeter of this kind on the territory of Romania and one of the largest in Europe. Many works were written about the Ruschita marble quarry across time, especially regarding geology, but very little was talked about its tourism potential. If generally, the vast majority of the extractive areas are not at all attractive from the tourist point of view, having rather a repulsive appearance, the marble quarry from Ruschita proves the contrary, both by the greatness and sizes of exploitation and by the surrounding area, constituted of a very diversified mountain relief and an abundant forest vegetation. That is why, we consider useful an attraction and integration in the tourist circuit of this spectacular anthropogenic monument, unique in Romania, comparable to the Carrara (Italy) marble quarries. This paper makes a pleading in this respect |full text|.
The Romanian Population by Gender and Age Groups in 2011
K e y w o r d s: geodemographic structure, gender, age groups, sex ratio, county, geographical-historical provinces, Romania
Abstract. Following the previous studies on the demographic characteristics of the Romanian population, ethnicity and religion, this study covers the geodemographic issues of gender and age groups. As compared to the previous studies, our analysis covers these major population features in strong connection with the numerical evolution of the population, strongly determined by the socioeconomic background before 1990 and afterwards. We used the official data of the census in 2011 provided by the National Institute of Statistics. In order to create a representative picture of the Romanian population by gender and age groups, we employed the data illustrating the state of these two indicators in tables and maps. As compared to the values registered in 1992, the Romanian population in 2011 registered a decrease of 11.79%, relatively balanced in terms of gender structure, the male population holding a share of 48.65% and the female population, a share of 51.35%. The age structure also reveals a relative balance between active adult population (56.32%) and the young and old population, together holding a share of 43.68%. Spatially, the structure of the Romanian population by gender and age structure, show differences at county level and also at a larger scale |full text|.
Development Policies in Alba Iulia Area of Influence. An Integrated Approach
K e y w o r d s: development policies, strategic framework, Area of Influence, intercommunity development association, City of Alba Iulia
Abstract. The paper represents an integrated and holarchical perspective on the spatial development policies and its component measures and projects related to the City of Alba Iulia, its area of influence and the all-encompassing County of Alba, Romania. The goal was to see how the development and management policies from all levels merge into a single strategic framework that might create a favourable basis for the sustainable growth of Alba Iulia and its area of influence. As this area surrounding the city is subjected to different hierarchical plans and programmes, some that are not properly correlated, it is extremely clear that this area and Areas of Influence in general need legislative stipulations made specifically for them and also a well-thought holarchical planning approach |full text|.
Ski Areas and Slopes in Romania. Reviewing Current State of Winter Sports Tourism Unfolding Possibilities within Carpathian Mountains
K e y w o r d s: tourism potential, mountain tourism, ski domain, ski run, hierarchical categories, facilities
Abstract. This study is reviewing nowadays Romania's tourism supply (2015) - laying special emphasis on the North-West Development Region's situation - in terms of winter sports potential (resources) and material and technical base (specific infrastructure). It calls into question a highly discussed topic within the domain of interest of Tourism Geography, whose recursiveness could be justified by countinuous changes that influence the quantitative and qualitative configuration of ski areas, ski tracks and related equipment. The existence of favourable natural support in terms of relief and climate is an indispensable prerequisite to the development of winter sports tourism within any area. From this point of view, the presence of the Carpathians is a major advantage for Romania, the more so as the proportion of the mountain sector represents 30 percent of the national area (238,391 square kilometres). By occupying different amounts of the territory belonging to 6 development regions and 19 counties, heterogeneous tourism potential values have emerged, causing unequal exploitation opportunities within the mountain area. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework of Romanian ski slopes, areas and corresponding facilities for assessing their current state, from regional perspective, with emphasis on North-West's situation. On this line, the main objectives, starting from identifying and inventorising to classifying regions and ski tracks based on hierarchical categories, also deal with ranking slopes according to surface, length, width, elevation of departure point, difference in elevation, difficulty ratings, capacities of slopes and cable transportation means. In order to achieve these goals, quantitative research methods and techniques mostly refered to observation, analysis, synthesis and comparison of statistical data, well-synthesized within tables, graphical and cartographical representations. Aiming to highlight Romania's specificity concerning mountain tourism and winter sports unfolding possibilities, with an almost century-old tradition, came out that the best numerical and typological tourism supply representation belongs to the Central Region whereas for the North-West Development Region, Maramureş and Cluj counties impose themselves through the potential of their largest ski areas and resorts: Cavnic and Muntele Băişorii |full text|.
A Model of Assessing the Value of the Tourism Potential of Moinești, Târgu Ocna and Slănic Moldova Resorts (Romania)
K e y w o r d s: tourist value chart, therapeutic factors, patient-tourist needs
Abstract. The most viable type of tourism for these three urban settlements choosen for evaluation Moineşti, Târgu Ocna and Slănic Moldova, is health tourism, due to the existence of several curative factors such as mineral water springs, moffettes, local bioclimate, salt-mine micro-climate. According to the modern patient-tourist preferences, a highly diversified tourist offer is required, which gives the tourist the possibility, besides health recovery, to rest and to relax. The present paper’s objective is to elaborate the tourist offer of an ideal health resort and to estimate the value of the entire tourist heritage for showing which one of these three urban settlements is able to realize the most attractive health tourist offer, through a complex methodology use (analysis, synthesis, observation, comparative, graphic, cartographic), not before determining the ideal tourist value graphic of natural and anthropic resources from a health resort |full text|.
The Road Connectivity Index Applied to the Settlements of Banat Using GIS
K e y w o r d s: network analysis, accessibility, road infrastructure development, central place, Romania
Abstract. This paper compares the spatial structure of accessibility in Romania before and after the implementation of some major national and/or European road infrastructure projects. This study suggests a new index for accessibility measurement by combining gravity-based models with Place Rank and adapting it to the Romanian system of settlements. Based on the GIS estimation of travel time, this index evaluates not only the geographical position of a specific community relative to the road network, but also the level of accessibility of rural and urban communities to the social services located in central places. The GIS-based maps indicate the existing disparities (between well-connected and isolated regions in terms of accessibility to the central places) and the impact of new infrastructure projects on these disparities. The resulting maps can be used as efficient tools for transport planning and development at different scales (international, national, regional and local) |full text|.
The National Structure of Maramureş County at the 20thOctober 2011 Census
K e y w o r d s: the 2011 population census, romanians, ukrainians, zipsers
Abstract. The aim of the following study is to present the territorial distribution of the 20 ethnicities found in Maramureş County, in urban as well as rural areas, and in the 76 administrative-territorial units that make up the county. Regarding the ethnic structure of the population, one must point out that solely 451 536 people declared their ethnicity (out of total of de 478 659 people), Romanians numbering 374 488 people (82.94%), Hungarians 32 618 people (7.22%), while the number of people who claimed the Ukrainian ethnicity was 30 786 (6.83%), followed by Gypsies – 12 211 people (2.70%), other 16 ethnic groups (German, Turkish, Russians Lipovan, Tartar, Serbian, Slovak, Bulgarian, Croatian, Greek, Italian, Jews, Czechs, Polish, Chinese, Armenian and Csangos) with a total of 1 433 people (0.32%), and other ethnicities with 179 people (0.04%) |full text|.
The Stimulating Offer of Rural Tourism in Buda Village, Berzunţi County; Possibilities of (Re)Adaptation Regarding the Modern Tourist Preferences
K e y w o r d s: local bioclimate, ecumenical tourism, slow food, tourist needs, local community
Abstract. Considering the fact that the village taken into study, like many Romanian settlements, faces with problems like depopulation and accelerated aging of local community, being unable to sustain an optimal agriculture, caused by shortcomings expansion of the industrialization process, the present paper aims to highlight the chances of rural tourism implementation, its possible effects and to realize a stimulative offer, readjusting it to the modern tourist preferences, through a rigorous analysis of primary and derived tourist offer by means of graphic, cartographic materials and through a survey application which aims to reveal the local community’s perception over rural tourism |full text|.
Operational Structures in Urban and Rural Strategic Development
K e y w o r d s: settlement geosystem, development strategy, informational ranking, logical scheme, threshold value, assessment unit
Abstract. Settlements development is an ongoing process and besides being conditioned by extrinsic and intrinsic factors it is also conditioned by the evolution of a set of parameters that should call for a selective adoption of specific development actions. When designing a strategy for the development of urban/ rural settlements it is not enough to just perform an overview of the status of constituents, subsequently revealing dysfunctions and problems, which would be later covered by the strategy through a set of proposed programs, measures and projects. This type of approach can be regarded as outdated and limited. Therefore, due to the inconsistencies between the written measures and the practical results in the field our aim was to develop an integrated logical scheme, containing parameters, indices and threshold values to methodically address the highly complex systemic structure of settlements in the process of development. This should represent the foundation for the diagnosis and for further simulations of development depending on the changing development parameters. This proposed logical scheme, consisting of assessment units and their parameters, would help specialists improve the quality control of development strategies and know real-time changes occurring in the settlement system due to changes registered in the values of parameters. We debate on the need to develop a multi-criteria assessment tool useful in designing the future development of settlements and the results show a possible model of logical scheme and its inner structure |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: urban sprawl, residential area, households, sprawl costs, transportation
Abstract. The research focuses on the economic aspects of urban sprawl while analyzing the population located in Zielonki suburban municipality of Krakow (Poland), one of the most developed residential areas contributing essentially to the urban sprawl. The conducted study shows a profile of society that enhances the phenomenon of urban sprawl, paying close attention to the economic side of the functioning of residents by presenting the costs associated with owning a suburban home and travel costs. The inference was based on a survey conducted on the newcomers, residents settled here between 2000 and 2013, representing triggering factors of urban sprawl. Among the conclusions of the study, we note that households in Poland are represented by well-educated, highly-waged, married persons, under the age of 40 with two children. These families live in average-size houses, which are often private propriety, with no mortgage. They form a society dependent on cars, yet mostly using inexpensive second hand cars. Thus, the choice of living in the suburban areas of Krakow proves to be driven by cost-efficiency and residential independency reasons, the distance to the city centre being easily overcome |full text|.
Managing Natural Protected Areas in Romania. Who is More Suited for this Task?
K e y w o r d s: natural protected areas, management, administrators, custodians, government bodies, non-governmental organizations, Romania
Abstract. The question embedded in the title of this paper is often heard in the meeting rooms of the Romanian Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Several other variables arose, such as: Who is the most suitable for managing the natural protected areas of Romania?Which type of organization has the best credentials, experience, and resources to preserve these areas? The intention of this article was to present the main types of establishments who regularly apply for the administration or custody of natural protected areas in Romania, then to try to put forward their general strengths and weaknesses, more importantly the ways in which they can contribute to the preservation of such areas, and finally, if possible, to pinpoint the best suited organization for handling the issues that frequently arise in natural protected areas. Even though the absence of organizations that could have been suitable for such a task was startling, the research revealed a wide range of applicants for the title of administrator or custodian. No clear winner emerged, as each had its useful endowments, but also flaws that could disrupt the management of natural protected areas. However, these stakeholders could collaborate and, in theory, complement each other to attain sustainability in natural protected areas |full text|.
Ethnicity from Spatial Centrality to Peripherality. The Case of Cluj County, Romania
K e y w o r d s: ethnic group, minority-majority relationship, peripherality, ethnic ratio, homogeneity index, IDW Method(Inverse Distance Weighting)
Abstract. This study aims to analyze the ethnic structure of the population in Cluj County, Romania, by highlighting the essential traits of their spatial distribution at local level, in urban and rural areas. Having the diversity in the ethnic structure registered in the study area in 2011, we proposed to reveal the spatial distribution of communities, emphasizing on the localization of the first three ranked ethnic groups (Romanian, Hungarian and Rroma). Data revealed that the ethnic majority in the area is represented by the Romanian population (75.37%) and the first ranked minority is represented by the Hungarian population (14.99%). After calculating the relevant indices (the homogeneity index, the ethnic ratio, the ethnic differentiation) results showed a particular feature of the ethnic minority group in relation with the ethnic majority group. We used the IDW method (Inverse Distance Weighting) to cartographically reflect the spatial distribution of the ethnic groups at local level. Results also show an inverse distribution pattern, in which the minority ethnic group is located centrally whereas the majority ethnic group was pushed to peripheral areas. We noted that the added share of Rroma population (3.36%) to the first ranked minority Hungarian group did not change the spatial distribution pattern displayed after using the IDW Method. The conclusion showed that in a mostly Romanian inhabited space, the ethnic majority does not correspond to spatial centrality but to peripherality, this fact being determined by the intrusion of the minority ethnic groups in this area through morphologically advantageous corridors, thus “cramming” the local Romanian population mostly in the mountainous and hilly areas. In the end, by showing this spatial distribution pattern of ethnic groups, we aimed to point out that among the main factors that trigger the spatial centrality and peripherality in the Cluj county, ethnicity plays also an important role |full text|.
The Perception and the Status of the Peripheral Regions in the Netherlands and Romania. A Comparative Geographic Study
K e y w o r d s: peripheral region, Achterhoek region, North-West development region, demographic decline, linear regression analysis
Abstract. The perception on the status of the peripheral regions is a common subject in the Netherlands and Romania becoming a worldwide topic in the public discourse. The focus of our comparative study was triggered by the fact that regions from countries as The Netherlands and Romania are already facing a population decline and the perception on the status of peripheries has degraded for several decades. Firstly, we emphasize on the meaning of peripheral area through the two case studies: the Achterhoek region in the Netherlands and the North-West development region in Romania. Secondly, we emphasize on the existence of two patterns of peripheral areas indicating the demographic evolution of population in rural areas of both regions. By inducing the linear regression analysis as a comparative tool we synthesized the social and economic transformations of peripheral areas during the periods of 1998-2012 and 1992-2012. In this order, we accentuated on the perception of differences in peripheral areas in these two regions, which eventually leads to a mutual policy framing between both countries. In this order, the linear regression analysis measures the demographic changes in terms of demographic tendencies, social and economic transformations. This comparative study encompasses two regions from different EU countries; it explores the possibilities for each country to learn one from the other |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: core, periphery, segregation, Central-Eastern Europe, Romania
Abstract. This present study provides a comparative overview of the core-periphery relationship of urban and rural areas in Romania based on one major parameter: segregated spatial distribution, driven and impacted by axiomatic factors such as time constraints and socio-economic disparities caused by political decisions, wealth, and available infrastructure. Overall, existent data suggest that: (1) both peripheries and cores are the result of political decisions resulting in wide wealth gaps; (2) evident segregation of the poor and rich peripheries is evidenced by spatial distribution of residential areas according to proximity, respectively distance to certain sites (waste disposal, contaminated areas, central urban location), and (3) poor and rich peripheries are both dominated by isomorphic social and infrastructure structures and functions |full text|.
Prospecting Event Tourism within the Rural-Mountain Area of Cluj County by Means of Online Promotion
K e y w o r d s: tourism supply, cultural manifestation, sports competition, spatial distribution, website
Abstract. This paper aimed to prospect human activities endowed with attractive function in order to acknowledge the reliance of Cluj County’s rural-mountain area on practicing events tourism and developing related activities, as far as the Internet is concerned. Considering this goal, the online environment became the primary source of information, equally serving for data collection and processing. By using both quantitative and qualitative methods and techniques (observation, analysis, synthesis, statistical, cartographical etc.) the main objectives of this research were acquired: from identifying and inventorying events to classifying and establishing hierarchies according to several critieria. Thus, results revealed the existence of 45 current events, mostly of national interest, ranging from 0 to 9 per commune, mainly taking place during summer. Further analysis showed the predominance of cultural events (especially traditional celebrations and festivals), followed by sport events (winter sports competitions) and finally adventure ones. It also came out that more than half of them benefited from informational materials (posters) and that the great majority were advertised by means of online press websites. Subsequently, the map of the events based on spatial distribution and classification was provided (bringing into prominence Băişoara as the holder of the best diversified tourism supply) along with the events position within the tourism life cycle (illustrating the prevalence of the manifestations that encounter themselves in the Growth phase, actually gathering less than 10 editions) |full text|.
The Religious Structure of Maramureş Countyat the 20thOctober 2011 Census
K e y w o r d s: Maramureş County, religion, orthodox, roman-catholic, greek-catholic, reformed
Abstract. In regards to the religious structure of Maramureş County, only 450 196 people out of a total of 478 659 inhabitants declared their religion at the 2011 Census. Most of them were Orthodox, with 357,627 followers (79.44%), which formed the majority in 74 of the 76 administrative-territorial units. The Roman-Catholic congregation comprised 22,761 people, that is a percentage of 5.06%, Greek-Catholic 21836 followers or 4.85%, Pentecostals 16 541, which translated into 3.67%, Reformed with 16 246, 3.61%. The category named other religions or atheists contains 15 185 people or 3.37%. We would also like to point out that the difference between the value of the stable population and the value of the declared population constitutes an indicator labelled „Unavailable information”, an irrelevant component in registering the religious structure of a territory |full text|.
Relevanța Utilizării Fotografiilor în Cercetarea Geografică
K e y w o r d s: geographical observation, visual imagery, interpretation, subjectivity, veracity
Abstract. As a part of qualitative research methods, the interpretation of visual imagery is a topic rarely discussed by researchers and poorly justified as an actual stand-alone method. Nowadays, especially in Geography, the main use of photographs is offering information and not obtaining it through their interpretation. The main disadvantages that come with this method and inhibits the researchers from using visual imagery (especially photographs, postcards, lithographs, etc.) in obtaining new informations, will be the focus of our paper, with arguments and examples through which our purpose is to increase the popularity of this method |full text|.
Assessing University Students’ Competences for Didactic Planning in Mathematics and Environmental Exploration in the Context of Educational System Changes in Romania
K e y w o r d s: preparatory class, competences, lesson plan, pre-university education, higher education, initial training
Abstract. The study stemmed from the fact that teachers have difficulties in designing lessons. The objective of the study was to identify these difficulties and to analyse how to adapt lesson plans in the context of the paradigm shift in the educational system through its focus on competence training. We analysed 40 lesson plans for themes at the subject “Mathematics and Environmental Exploration” for the preparatory class. These lesson plans were developed by third-year university students who were teachers and educators that completed full time courses and distance learning at the specialization “The Pedagogy of the Primary and Preschool Education”, during the 2014-2015 academic year. We analysed the titles of the plans, the introductory part of the plans (class, grade level and date, subject, curriculum area, thematic units, the lesson type, the specific competences, the operational objectives, the organization of work, methods and processes of teaching, means of education), and lesson development. We identified the problems that teachers had in designing the lesson and we made some suggestions for solving them |full text|.
Tourist Image of Romania Reviewed by International Travel Guides. Comparative Study: English, French and German Editions
K e y w o r d s: tourist guidebook, foreign tourists, tourist sites, tourist destination
Abstract. The number of tourists willing to visit a foreign country is largely determined by both general and tourist image of the chosen destination. Represented by the way of perception, the tourist image is mainly influenced by a wide range of sources of information, reason for which analyzing tourist informational materials about Romania is a must when it comes to examine it as a tourist destination from foreigners point of view. Hence, the article deals with three guidebooks (published in international languages: English, French and German), whose specific presentation reverberates into different ways to retrospect to the Romania’s tourism supply. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal what kind of information the investigated guidebooks consider relevant to share with the readers and how the authors of these editions decide to provide it. Furthermore the article aims to be a starting point for further researches concerning this area of interest. With respect to the methodology that mediated this research, the methods that stand out in relief, regard observation, analysis, synthesis, graphic and cartographic ones which served specific objectives, likewise: identifying, analyzing and comparing the manner in which Romania may be seen by foreigners even without their visit to this country |full text|.
Changes in the Romanian Carpathian Tourism After the Communism Collapse and the Domestic Tourism Satisfaction
K e y w o r d s: geography, tourism, domestic tourists'satisfaction, survey, Romanian Carpathians
Abstract. In the context of Romania's transition to the market economy after the communism collapse, and the accession in EU, the study aims to analyse characteristics of tourism changes in the Carpathian destinations by correlation with the domestic visitors' satisfaction for tourist services and new forms of tourism by empirical field observations, and statistical analysis used to test the level of satisfaction for Carpathian tourism. The results show an increase of tourist demand for the Carpathian destinations in the framework of tourist establishments' structure changes, the spreading of agri-tourism, a need for improvement of accommodation services quality according to the visitors' profile. Tourism development, revealed by visitors' flows, has some similarities with the perception of tourists. The tourists' views can, with several limits, be considered as a barometer in tourism research and a useful instrument in building tourism offers |full text|.
Changes in Landscape Structure Induced by Transportation Projects in Cluj-Napoca Periurban Area Using GIS
CORPADE Ciprian, MAN Titus, PETREA Dănuț, CORPADE Ana-Maria, MOLDOVAN Ciprian
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 9, no. 4/2014, pp. 177-184
ISSN (online): 1842-4090
K e y w o r d s: mobility management, landscape assessment, landscape metrics, topogrid interpolation, idw interpolation, landscape categories
Abstract. The infrastructure development projects planned and partly implemented around some major Romanian cities have significantly changed the characteristics of the natural landscape. Based on the landscape metrics, we analyzed the state of landscape fragmentation in the urban and periurban area of the municipality of Cluj-Napoca before and after the implementation of the projected road network. In this respect, we used a combination of ArcGIS functions and interpolation methods (Calculate Geometry function, Topogrid and IDW interpolations), as well as Patch Analyst extension. The statistical analysis was applied to a territory of almost 60000 ha and the total length of proposed transportation projects is 96 km. The results showed higher values for Number of Patches, Total Edge, Edge Density after the transportation projects implementation, while Mean Patch Size values decreased. In order to gain expressivity, three sites with high concentration of proposed roads were selected to be analyzed comparatively, significant changes being identified in land-use structure within the categories arable lands (Number of Patches increasing with 13 up to 54 and Mean Patch Size decreasing with 4.21 up to 4.94 ha) and roads (Number of Patches increasing with 1 up to 3 and Mean Patch Size decreasing with 1.86 up to 6.60 ha). In the eastern part of the region, due to multiple crossings of the Someşul Mic River, important differences were pointed out within the flowing water category (Number of Patches increasing from 4 to 18 and Edge Density from 28.26 to 31.86, while Mean Patch Size decreased from 6.72 to 1.49 ha). The applied methodology could constitute an effective tool to be used in the Strategic Environmental Assessment of transportation projects to complete those commonly applied that approach mainly subjective aspects as landscape aesthetics |full text|.
Types and Forms of Tourism Based on Natural and Anthropic Tourist Resources in Apuseni Mountains Case Study: Rural Mountain Area of Cluj County
K e y w o r d s: attractive elements, natural tourist fund, anthropic tourism patrimony, tourism potential
Abstract. This paper focused on identification, quantification and classification of tourist resources pertaining to natural tourist fund and purpose-built tourism patrimony in order to establish the main forms of tourism which can be practiced within the rural mountain area of Cluj County. By providing a general overview of the primary tourism supply the article aimed to highlight and promote the tourism potential related to the study area whose rural and mountain features ensured a unique combination of tourist attractions capable of sustaining the unfolding of 18 different tourism forms |full text|.
Bistriţa Ardeleană Catchment Area - Coordinates of Strategic Land Management
K e y w o r d s: connectivity, strategic land management, catchment area, Bistriţa Ardeleană
Abstract.The approach of "creation and execution" / designing of this territorial cut-out of basin type, in the paradigmatic context of the durable development, is subordinate to an (almost) exhaustive investigation of the vocation and potentiality of this area in terms of geographical and spatial organization of the territory. There may be multiple reasons to justify the existence of a paper which approaches this territory in an integrating and prospective manner. First of all, this area has an "identity card" type of evidence, at the level of the collective memory of the county's inhabitants. Even if many contradictions multiplied along the years, nuances and specificities have been imposed, there is a filiation and a common territorial manifestation for the population and the settlements in this area. Secondly, the building of the settlements from Bârgău area and their later historical evolution was accomplished in a close interdependence, therefore the premise of development cannot be achieved outside the association (the access to different financing sources is easier when partnerships are built). Thirdly, the challenge of developing a study that shows the real prospects of developing a territory from the Bistriţa Ardeleană catchment area was motivated by subjective arguments, and the love of nature and environment played a key role in the effort to complete this action |full text|.
The Aesthetic and Ecological Values of Cluj-Napoca Urban Landscape
K e y w o r d s: Cluj-Napoca, landscape, General Urban Plan, Grigorescu neighborhood, Mana$tur neighbourhood, Gheorgheni neighbourhood
Abstract. The aim of the paper at hand is the aesthetic and ecological evaluation of the City of Cluj-Napoca urban landscape, relevant for designing and developing the contemporary urban space and outlining Cluj-Napoca urban landscapes. The method used in this endeavour is based on the relation between the landscape's ecological and aesthetic values. A combined matrix was developed, containing the above mentioned values, and points were awarded for every type of identified landscape (nine in total). The correlation based on these points was represented graphically. Higher scores were awarded to those landscapes with high ecological as well as aesthetic values, such as parks and public gardens which also contain wild flora, while lower scores were obtained by industrial areas and abandoned sites. Our undertaking is interdisciplinary, combining the results of geographic research with aspects of urban planning |full text|.
Vision and Strategic Objectives for Sustainable Development of the Apuseni Mountains Mining Settlements
Keywords:mining area, planning models, sustainable development, Apuseni Mountains, Romania
Abstract. The restructuring of the mining sector in Romania since 1989 has had extremely serious social, economic and environmental consequences for the mining settlements. Following the mine closure programs and socio-economic and environmental regeneration efforts the situation has only slightly improved, the settlements being still very vulnerable in terms of quality of life and prospects for sustainable development. In this paper the authors have developed a vision for sustainable development of the Apuseni Mountains mining areas that would support policy writing and lead to the identification of appropriate solutions for socio-economic and environmental development of the studied area |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: postmodern tourism, postmodern tourist, niche tourism, nootourism, nontourism
Abstract. The nexus between globalization and tourism has been established whereas postmodernism imprints features on the current and future society. Seen as a result of revolutions (technological, behavioural, philosophical, economic) in society and civilizations, postmodernism can be perceived as an adjustment to new conditions involving changes in all fields, ultimately triggering changes in the vision of current civilization, individual’s mentality, perception and behaviour, management of resources, adaptation to environmental alterations, and last but not least converting tourism from an economic activity into a social and leisure lifestyle, from a complementary necessity into a basic need associated with the right of free movement. Therefore, we addressed the forms and types of tourism and their placement on the new trend in accordance with the change in mentality, perception, behaviour, taste, needs and expectations of providers and consumers. Since niche tourism has already developed, expressing the multiple perspectives of postmodernism, the aim of our paper is to explore the many possibilities to develop niche tourism and prove that it is indeed the future of tourism in postmodern times, as supple structures, particularized on narrow tourist-oriented markets, focusing on the identity, authenticity and uniqueness of place, experiential and active-participative tourism products. Our analysis also results in stating several ground features for the future wellbeing of niche tourism. Identity prevails and not the extravagance and going back to simple is encouraged. However, if we dare to look beyond postmodernism the concluding remarks highlight the prevalence of inherence than
conspicuousness in tourism practice given the continuous movement of population (migration, travelling for work) in contrast with the obvious monopoly of digitalization and technology that transform a large share of consumers from active travellers to passive virtual tourists. Thus we could advocate for the emergence of a new tourism, nootourism that would in the end become the bridge to non-tourism |full text|.
Heritage Tourism in the Cross-Border Area of Satu Mare (Romania) and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Hungary) Counties
K e y w o r d s: heritage tourism, cross-border area, Satu Mare (Romania), Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Hungary), QGIS
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to assess the prospects of heritage tourism in the cross-border area of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Counties. The two adjacent counties are bound by common historical roots, hence giving rise to an outstanding legacy. Variety and authenticity represent features that confer great value on these resources, enabling thus the development of a specific form of tourism, namely the heritage tourism. At present, the concept embodies several meanings, all of them nourishing from one idea. Regardless of their nature (tangible buildings, sites, museum objects, beliefs or traditional cuisine), heritage resources provide a special connection to the past and are perceived by the individual as possessing a genuine value. The present study has been developed in several stages. Firstly, the conducted field investigations provided the opportunity to acquire indispensable data, information and photographs, which made possible an accurate identification, inventory and classification of all sites relevant to the issue of heritage tourism. The use of QGIS 2.0 Dufour open source software provided a framework for comprising a database and also enabled the creation of graphic and cartographic representations. Furthermore, the endeavour was completed by the submission of certain scenarios regarding the evolution and development of the heritage tourism phenomenon |full text|.
Abstract. The majority of this kind of infrastructure is concentrated in the mountain areas of Romania, which comprise 33% of the national territory. Unlike the Alps, where the average altitude is 2500-3000 m, the Romanian Carpathians reach the maximum altitude in Moldoveanu Peak (2544 m), Mount Făgăraş, Southern Carpathians. This fact brings forward temporal constraint for ski practice (middle of December - beginning of June). Romania has 225,000 m official ski-slopes, 43% of them being concentrated in the Southern Carpathians, especially the Prahova Valley and Poiana Braşov. Regarding the degree of difficulty, just 20% of them are very difficult. From the total of 199 ski-slopes, only 14 (7%) disposes to light systems during the night. Nowadays, the skiing infrastructure from Romania satisfies national needs in good parameters. In order to attract international ski contests in Romania, it is mainly necessary to modernize the actual infrastructure. Furthermore, in our country, new areas for skiing must be set up, by instance in the Lotru Mountains, West side of the Southern Carpathians |full text|.
The Touristic Function of Settlements within "Frontier" Geopolitics
K e y w o r d s: functions of settlements, sense of existence, conjunctural functions, touristic function, the "frontier" phenomenon
Abstract. We propose a new approach on the touristic function, part of the vast system of settlement functions, due to a novel philosophy through which we view the concept of settlement. This philosophy uses what we like to call the sense of existence as a reference point for defining city/village or urban/rural functions. We define city as a highly organized geographic space, with a permanent dynamics, capable of providing a diversity of functions for its evolution and development. The concept of urban function is seen as the relation of necessity that appears between the elements of the urban geo-system and their state, and that generates, cultivates and sustains the city's life, in order to attain its systemic finality. The new definitions offer support to a new geographic taxonomy of functions: vital functions and conjunctural functions. The touristic function is placed within the conjunctural functions. Settlements, and cities in particular, are highly elaborate geo-systems, and this complexity is also generated by „frontier" phenomena and processes. The touristic function acquires frontier conjunctural characteristics, as a vector in expansionary frontiers, but also in reactionary frontiers. The frontier function of a city (in particular) often mingles with other functions, and blends with the touristic function in very special ways |full text|.
From Tourism to Industry and Again Tourism: Moinești Case, Romania
K e y w o r d s: industry, tourism, mineral water springs, crude oil, economy revival
Abstract. During the last century, Moinesti's economic functions experienced many changes between touristic and industrial one thanks to the existence of mineral water springs acknowledged for its therapeutic qualities and to the existence of great oil resources. The methodology used (analysis, synthesis, observation, graphic, cartographic, comparison and historical methods) is centred to show and explain the alternations between touristic and industrial function, given that the „black gold" has been, from 1860 until present, the key of Moinesti's development, despite the fact that it has been a spa resort for almost 20 years, and, in this moment, tourism represents the best solution for Moinesti's economy revival, since the exploitation of oil resources has significantly decreased. This paper aims to reveal and explain the socio-economic evolution between those two standings, starting from nationwide aspects which are fully reflected in Moinesti's situation. Due to the tourism phenomenon, the level of planning and the total number of tourists who visited the municipality were analysed, and, what concerns industry, the amount of oil extracted and processed, the local population evolution were analysed as well as the major events which had a great influence in this case |full text|.
Tourist Perception of the Artworks of Constantin Brâncuși, from Târgu-Jiu, Romania
K e y w o r d s:Brâncuși, Târgu Jiu, Romania, tourist attraction
Abstract. Constantin Brâncuși was a Romanian sculptor who was born in 1876, in Hobița, a village close to Târgu Jiu. During his life, he created works of monumental art, mostly during his internship in Paris. Among his works, nationally and internationally recognized are Infinity Column, Table of Silence, Kissing Gate and Magic Bird, these creations being relocated in central area of Târgu Jiu between 1937-1938, the measure ordered by Gorj Women's League, led by Arethia Tătărescu. Due to this fact, the city has become more popular thanks to a permanent flow of national and international tourists attracted by originality and expressiveness of the great Romanian sculptor's works. Being exposed outdoors together, it creates a true "tourist pilgrimage" throughout the year, but it is impossible to express numerically. The fact is that tourists who visit Târgu Jiu come from all over the world, and without these masterpieces the city would not have known the international fame it enjoys today |full text|.
Tourism Infrastructure in the Rural Mountain Area of Cluj County (Romania)
K e y w o r d s:tourism infrastructure, tourist receiving structure, rural mountain area, Cluj county, Romania
Abstract. The mountain sector belonging to Cluj county, situated in its western part, occupies one third of the county's total surface area (6.650 km2). Relatively short distances from the studied territory to Cluj-Napoca Municipality, the second most important city in the national hierachy after Bucharest (gathering approximately 350.000 inhabitants), and still unmodified traditional economy related to the rural mountain area which furthermore happens to be equipped with accessible communication network, have represented catalytic agents of the tourism infrastructure development. Diversification and varying degrees of modernization describe nearly all tourist receiving structures which form the four examined components of the tourism sector. The purpose of this paper consists of highlighting the features of the tourism infrastructure pertaining to the rural mountain area of Cluj county, where both the accomodation sector and the entertainment one seem to distinguish themselves by the predominance of guesthouses, followed by farmhouses in the former case, and by the development of winter sports infrastructure, especially skiing, for the latter case |full text|.
The Role of Rural Tourism Concerning the Local Development - Case Study: Arieșeni
K e y w o r d s:rural tourism, local development, rural area, tourist potential, impact
Abstract. The role of rural tourism in local development is increasing due to external factors which influence people's life. In the last century, there can be observed a need of people to relax, to connect with nature, to discover their roots and get away from the daily stress. The answer to all this is rural tourism. Arieseni is a local resort situated in the center of Apuseni Mountains, known as a rural area but also as a ski resort. For many people who live here, tourism is an essential activity besides agriculture. And because the natural and anthropic potential is very high in this area, there are many activities that tourists can do. We can talk about cultural tourism, sightseeing, spending time in nature, visits to the major tourist attractions from the area (caves, waterfalls, and mountains) but also spending time to discover the rural life. Two associations contributed to the development of the rural tourism in the area: OVR (Operation Village Romaine) and ANTREC (Association Nationale de Tourisme Rurale, Ecologique et Culturel) and their actions can still be noticed in the present. The advantages and disadvantages of the rural tourism are also mentioned in this paper. It is known that the tourist activity has its positive and negative aspects regarding the social life of the residents, the environment, and the impact on tourist attractions. Rural tourism can assure a supplementary income for the persons involved in this activity or in some cases it can be the only source of income. It is also a way of preserving the cultural traditions, customs, and beliefs. An analysis (by means of questionnaires) shows the importance that rural tourism has in the development of the area but also how it influences the economic and social activities. The persons with a high education (college) such as doctors, teachers, and engineers were the first who noticed that this form of tourism can help to the development of their village. The local development is possible only if the local people get involved and participate in the development along with local authorities, so the both parts contribute to the community welfare |full text|.
Tourism Development in a Rural Periphery. Case Study: the SubcarpathiansofOltenia
K e y w o r d s: rural space, periphery, tourism development, the Subcarpathians of Oltenia
Abstract. Rural areas are considered to be in a peripheral position relative to the urban centres. Dichotomies such as centre-periphery or urban-rural exist because rural areas have always been thought of as less developed, innovative, attractive, densely populated, accessible, etc. than the urban areas. In this study periphery is analysed in terms of distance from the centre, dependence, distinctiveness and discourse according to the view of the European Commission. The traditional approach of periphery associated with the distance from a central place in relation with markets, communication, access to information and services provided and, consequently, the idea of dependence of the rural space is altered due to tourism. Thus, tourism changes the relationships between centres and peripheries. Remoteness, naturalness, culture authenticity, vernacular architecture and gastronomy have become the distinctiveness sought by tourists. In tourism discourse periphery appears as an opportunity to be discovered and used accordingly. The growing demand for distinctiveness can represent a development opportunity for our study area, the Subcarpatians of Oltenia, a peripheral region both geographically and economically. Based on an empirical research, this paper aims at determining the place of tourism in the sustainable development strategy of the Subcarpathians of Oltenia. The evaluation of the tourism potential of the area as well as the calculation of its human development index allowed us to reach the conclusion that tourism can generate development in our study area but it should be used as an activity to support the already existing traditional activities |full text|.
Urban versus Rural. The Economic Performance of Romanian Counties
K e y w o r d s: urban, rural, Romania, county level, performance indicators, correlation, gross domestic product
Abstract. To reveal the connection between urbanisation, rurality and the economic performance of counties in Romania, we focused on several essential concepts found in the existing scientific literature, such as: urbanisation and economic growth, economic development, poverty reduction, productivity increase, the demography-productivity pair, innovation. Using cartographic and statistical methods and tools, we then compared and/or correlated the urbanisation level of each county (the percentage of people living in urban areas) with miscellaneous performance indicators such as: gross domestic product, net profit, turnover, total expenditures and employees in research and development activities, and average net salary. Our results suggest that urbanized counties in Romania register higher scores than the rural counties in case of each indicator, thus substantiating our thesis of a positive relationship between urbanization and economic growth. In short, Romania seems to fit perfectly in the universal trend of economically stronger urban regions and less powerful rural areas |full text|.
Insights into the Romanian Agricultural Post-Socialist Transition to Sustainability on the European Open Market
K e y w o r d s: structural changes, land fragmentation and individual ownership, land-use, agricultural transition, Romania
Abstract. Our approach highlights the nexus between the national statutory laws on the Romanian agriculture over a 20 year period and the structural changes in the agricultural land-use and holdings, thus outlining the fact that Romanian agriculture still is in a fully ongoing transitional phase. We concluded that the extended transition phase of Romanian agriculture could partly lead to increased territorial development disparities and to the impossibility of developing small farms due to excessive aging or even natural decease of landowners. Results prove the inconsistencies of land-use policy and bring out the most common land reform issues that have firstly led to excessive land fragmentation through legal individual ownership, low farm productivity and the inability of local producers to enter the open market as the national market is deeply monopolized by the strong food-products chain of supermarkets. Moreover, we are not able to develop distinctive or organic raw and processed local products and promote them on the national and European markets. The answer to the negative consequences of transitional agricultural development policies are synthetically presented and described through a set of possible measures to be taken and implemented in order to shorten the transition phase Romanian agriculture is still facing |full text|.
Transport Accessibility as Factor for the Development of Tourist Accommodation. The Case of Health Resorts in Romania
K e y w o r d s: transport infrastructure, accessibility, health tourism, therapeutic values
Abstract. The Romanian health tourism has had all the necessary premises for development and for registering some of the most efficient revenues. We therefore used a complex methodology aiming to highlight the current transport accessibility level in the case of each of the Romanian health resorts. We scored each type of accessibility (land and aerial transport) while considering the geographical position of the resorts and the connections with any European, National roads, primary and secondary railways, airports, and also the way in which the accessibility level of a resort influences the development of accommodation. Our second goal was to reveal the influence of transport accessibility level on tourist accommodation facilities in the Romanian health resorts, by performing several correlations between accessibility and accommodation facilities of each health resort. The conclusions showed that the health resorts situated in Carpathian area present the lowest level of transport accessibility and subsequently the influence on tourist accommodation facilities is very low, except for the health resorts situated at the seaside along the Black Sea coast, along Prahova Valley and in Crișana region, which were developed in locations where health factors were discovered, and under different historical circumstances and in which case the specific nature of health tourism requires a more secluded placement |full text|.
Air and Water - Indispensable Elements of Curative Tourism. Case Study: Moinești, Târgu Ocna, Slănic Moldova
K e y w o r d s: touristic system, curative offer, water springs, local bioclimate
Abstract. The present paper aims to create a curative tourism system at the level of three urban settlements which possess known therapeutic factors within which will be outlined a curative touristic offer, characterized by networking and interdependence of specified touristic elements of each city studied. For creating a curative offer at the level of three localities, first, it must be a compatibility between the components of proposed system, for this achievement being necessary to select the specified touristic elements of each urban settlement, the compatibility consisting in differentiation of each city’s tourism offer; therefore each locality must participate with its distinctive attractions at the unifying of a functional curative touristic system. The methodology used (historical, analysis, synthesis, comparative, statistical, graphic, cartographic, geographic) is centred on a multilateral analitical treating of tourism in Moineşti, Târgu Ocna, Slănic Moldova, through a qualitative and quantitative turismogen vectors comparison, through its graphic and cartographic reprezentation. For a deep curative tourism analyzing it is necessary to examine the hole tourism phenomenon, because, regarding the evolutionary trends of curative tourism, the preferences of modern patient-tourist focuse, not only on health recovery, but also on ways to relax, recreational opportunities |full text|.
Recreating the Landscape of the Former Roman Dacia Using Modern 19th Century Cartography, Digital Data and GIS
K e y w o r d s: Roman Dacia, landscape, fortresses, roads, limes
Abstract. In the last 22 years, the attempts of the central institutions to create, use and update a national database with all the archaeological sites of Roman Dacia have failed. In this paper, we will use digital data, former maps from the 19th century, archaeological in-formation, and aerial vertical photographs, to reconstruct several elements of the land-scape of the Roman Dacia. In lack of a national archaeological repertory and topographic researches using aerial photography, the reconstruction of the Dacian landscape is still to-day a difficult task to achieve. Our purpose is to discover, explain and map the spatial pat-terns using archaeological data, digital cartography and GIS |full text|.
The Road Connectivity Index Applied to the Settlements of Banat Using GIS
K e y w o r d s: road connectivity index, settlements, Banat, accessibility, isolation, GIS
Abstract. Based on previous works on the connectivity index applied to the settlements of Banat (Rusu, 2007; Rusu, 2008), the paper assesses the road connectivity index for the same settlements using a slightly different approach, based on the road distance from every settlement to the nearest central places, ranked on nine levels. Therefore, it is not the position on a certain road that counts, but the means by which specific groups of people (either urban or rural communities) might access a set of services or facilities deemed socially necessary and located in the above-mentioned central places. The welfare of the communities depends mainly on the standards of connectivity and accessibility to such services or facilities. We considered that the most valid measure of connectivity would then be the assessment of the space (distance) needed to be crossed for the population of every settlement to reach specific destinations. The overall values for each settlement have been interpolated using GIS in order to produce a map of the road connectivity index in Banat. The map clearly shows the existing disparities between well-connected regions, especially around the main cities, and isolated areas, usually in the mountains, the hills or along the borders |full text|.
Several Aspects Regarding the Specific Activities from Mureş Defile
K e y w o r d s: hydroelectric complex, mineral water, rock quarries, subsistence agriculture
Abstract. The geographical location, as well as the natural conditions (the relief’s morphometry, less than favourable climatic conditions, as well as the presence of shallow soils) played a deciding role in developing some activities characteristic to mountain areas, mainly represented by forestry and animal husbandry, with peaks and lows caused by social and historical factors that also affected the population of the area. Agriculture became one of the most important components of the defile’s economy, and still remains the main source of nourishment and income for a rather significant part of the population. When it comes to industry, it developed based on the extraction and exploitation of the area’s natural riches (construction rocks, mineral waters, timber), which are then incorporated into the economic circuit. The tertiary activities, in a strong correlation with the territory’s specificity, are less representative, trade being the one activity that stands out (timber, mineral water, construction rocks) |full text|.
The Landscape Morphology of Cluj-Napoca Residential Neighbourhoods
K e y w o r d s: Cluj-Napoca, landscape, General Urban Plan, Grigorescu neighbourhood, Mănăştur neighbourhood, Gheorgheni neighbourhood
Abstract. The study at hand set its sights on Cluj-Napoca urban territory, especially its built-up area established through the General Urban Plan. It analyses Cluj-Napoca housing areas, which comprise the city's residential neighbourhoods and presents their territorial position within the city, their main spatial characteristics, the main historical events from their evolution and their urbanistic organization pattern. Furthermore, it portrays the current situation of the neighbourhoods' landscape morphology and the opportunities for their rehabilitation and landscape reconstruction. The main goal of the paper is the morphological evaluation of Cluj-Napoca neigbourhood landscape as a component of the inhabitants' quality of life. A great emphasis was put on the way in which these great housing ensembles assumed, integrated and capitalized the natural potential of their area. In order to do so, we used data from cartographic and topographic sources, geological, geomorphological, historical data, information from the future General Urban Plan and from scientific literature. The results indicate that, with some exceptions, there is a poor landscape and urban comfort quality in Cluj-Napoca residential areas. The advantages offered by the natural framework were in most cases neglected and even annihilated. The new residential areas damaged the city by wasting the natural potential. From now on, the ability to plan these areas can only be summed up as management aspects |full text|.
The Gis-Based Road Distance and Time Connectivity Index of the Settlements Within the West Region of Romania
K e y w o r d s: west region of Romania, road distance connectivity index (RD), road time connectivity index (RT), accessibility, isolation, settlements, GIS
Abstract. This study is based on previous approaches to the subject of connectivity index (R. Rusu, 2007; R. Rusu, 2008) and is organically linked to the work of R. Rusu, T. Man and C. Moldovan (2013) which introduced the road distance connectivity index for the settlements of Banat. While preserving the above-mentioned index and the methodology to calculate it, this study extends the research to the whole West Region of Romania and sets the methodological framework for calculating a road time connectivity index, based on driving times from each settlement to the nearest central places of every rank. Although the values of the road time connectivity index would in fact depend more on various factors that have an impact on driving speed, it is a more reliable instrument to calculate connectivity. Settlements close to motorway entries/exits or located along or near national roads will have a better value of the time-based connectivity index than of the distance-based connectivity index. Both distance-based and time-based road connectivity indexes may represent useful tools in the planning and management of infrastructure projects, in development strategies meant to reduce territorial disparities, as well as in regional and local planning |full text|.
Urbanisation and Restructuring Procedures Proposed by Cluj-Napoca’s General Urban Plan: Observations and Discussion
K e y w o r d s: urbanisation procedure, restructuring procedure, Cluj-Napoca, General Urban Plan
Abstract. This study analyses Cluj-Napoca’s urban territory, the municipal built-up area to be more precise, which has been set by the General Urban Plan. The article examines the content of urbanisation and restructuring procedures of municipal areas, as they appear in the General Urban Plan of Cluj-Napoca, pending for approval. The territorial indication of such areas within the city, their main spatial characteristics, and the urban organization approach are being presented. The main purpose of this paper, however, is the evaluation of the content of these necessary, commendable, and beneficial efforts of urban construction and reconstruction. There is also a strong emphasis on aspects regarding the actual application of these procedures which, once the Plan is approved, become local laws. Based on a case study, we established the necessity of the “urbanisation” procedure for the area surrounding Câmpului Street. In order to do so, we used data from cartographic and topographic sources, from the General Urban Plan itself, from legislation and from different scientific references. The obtained results indicate that these procedures, extremely valuable for the future development of the city, must be backed by a clear and coherent legislation at central level, by future actions in order to clarify steps within them, and by a more efficient collaboration between local authorities and citizens |full text|.
The Evolution of Towns in Transylvania. Geographical and Historical Review Based on the Correlation: Age – Genetic Type
K e y w o r d s: Transylvania region, genetic type of town, urban settlement, historical period, documentary attestation
Abstract. The evolution of towns in Transylvania is studied along time relying on the historical documents of the region, the geographical space framing of the towns and the proofs of humanity influence over years. These geographical - historical characteristics of the Transylvanian region have generated through the historical periods the existence of a land with comprehensive meaning of the geographical space. In this context, the topic of our study discovers the birth of each town and his evolution over the years, its importance and functions in each historical period. In order to achieve a better knowledge about the geographical-historical evolution of towns in Transylvania we have identified and analyzed the differences between the ages of different towns referring to their first documentary attestation. Then, we deduced the three genetic types of towns in Transylvania region that can be divided into three categories: fortress and citadel, fair and primary resource town. The correlation between the ages of towns and their genetic type is performed, resulting in a novel approach for the geographical - historical research in the evolution of a town from the Transylvania region |full text|.
Debate on the Presence/Absence of the Vitruvian Triad in the Current Architecture and Urban Design
K e y w o r d s: Vitruvian triad, architectural patterns, urban design, triad dissolution, triggered effects
Abstract. In a context of general resignation of the Vitruvian triad in architecture and urban design we try to uncover and debate on the current act of building not rationally led but driven by on the spot decisions and subjective needs. Since Soundness, Utility and Beauty have been mainly considered the ideal combination that can lead to the creation of symbols and not simple constructions satisfying stringent needs, the main aim of this study is to highlight the importance of the Vitruvian triad and its ABCs in urban architecture and design, as well as the effects of changing shares of one of the dimensions on the aesthetics and functioning of the buildings. We start from the identification of the optimal combination of all three dimensions Soundness, Utility and Beauty reflected in the worldwide architectural heritage. However, our approach lies between illustrating the dissolution of the triad and identifying its reasoning, emphasizing on the most visible triggered effects in practice. Architecture represents the cultural field whose progress is most visible in time, and whose representatives are the universal symbols of ideas, knowledge and art, as the work of man surrounded by nature. In the end, we advocate for maintaining the presence of the Vitruvian triad for its purpose of fulfilling the role of architecture which is to create humanized environments that would fulfil the need for living still considering creative aesthetics as indispensable supplementary need |full text|.
Pedestrianisation in Cluj-Napoca. An Economic (Re)Development Tool?
K e y w o r d s: walkability, pedestrianisation, economic revitalisation, Cluj-Napoca, city center, clone space, ghost space, variety
Abstract. Pedestrianisation is seen by many as a saviour of downtowns areas, a powerful tool in combating services periferialisation in urban areas. My intent, through the article at hand, was to see whether the recent pedestrianisation of Cluj-Napoca’s old town had managed, so far, to reclaim, to reform, from an economical point of view, the city center, thus making it better, not only for businesses, but also for all people. Therefore, a series of criteria, from retail diversity to the number of social-cultural events, was employed to examine the situation on the ground. However, the outcome of this endeavour does not paint an auspicious picture, which means that Cluj-Napoca’s pedestrianisation process, the conversion of streets into car-free areas, did not generate a comprehensive revitalisation of the city center, lacking the capacity to create a strong economic environment on its own |full text|.
The Metamorphosis of Cities in the Republic of Moldova during the Communist Period and Beyond
K e y w o r d s: urban metamorphosis, demography, communist period, administration
Abstract. In the first part of this paper we make a historical retrospective about the communist era in Moldova. The pre-communist era of 1812-1940 and communist era during 1940-1991 are reflected in society through culture, traditions, customs, laws, dogmas, etc. In the second part we are talking about theories and methods used to study the communist period in Moldova. These theories and research methods are relevant to our study about demographic evolution in the Republic of Moldova. In the third part we analyze the historical stages of the era of communism and how it affected the Republic of Moldova and its citizens. We also specify how cities looked in the communist period and how their demographic, historical, political evolution has occurred. We conclude by presenting the administrative units of Moldova during the communist period, the demographic evolution and its current trends |full text|.
Evaluation of Tourist Flow Seasonality to Enhance Tourist Activities in Brașov - Prahova Valley Area
K e y w o r d s: tourism, tourist flow, Prahova Valley-Braşov, seasonality, territorial system, dysfunctions
Abstract. Located between large urban centres from Romania (Brașov and Ploiești-București), the studied area is approached so as to offer ideas and solutions in order to optimize the tourist flow. The statistical information can depict the essential aspects only through their correlation with the territorial reality. The biggest challenge is triggered by the fact that the project area does not record issues in terms of tourist destination branding, but in terms of the system incapacity to efficiently revaluate the existing tourist request. The tourist flow analysis offers an important image on the features of this phenomenon with an economic, social and cultural impact |full text|.
The Contemporary City BetweenAdministration and Geomanagement
Abstract. The city, judged from the perspective of complexity sciences and tackled in a functionalist manner, is seen by many as a living organism, which is a geosystem that tends towards a finality, called sense of existence. Reaching this finality, that acts as an epistemological axis, offers the chance of a new definition for the city and its functions. Starting from this construction, we are faced with several questions: Must today’s city be subjected to a sustainable development or must it be geomanaged in the spirit of a sustainable evolution? Does the concept of sustainable development have a future or must it be replaced with sustainable evolution? What is the revolution brought by changing the concept of sustainable development with that of sustainable evolution? In the substantiation of the leap from development to evolution, we propose the concept of managerial geography, as a new step of the urban management paradigm, offering the openness for establishing a new taxonomy of urban functions, which introduces concepts like: civic functions; vital functions, frontier functions, etc. By applying the taxonomy to the geography of Cluj-Napoca, respectively the taxonomy of the functional tertiary subsystem, we propose new approaches that will lead to the establishment of this new paradigm: urban geomanagement for attaining sustainable evolution |full text|.
Bârsana Monastery. A Gem Among the Wooden Buildings of Maramureş, Romania
Abstract. Bârsana monastery was reestablished after the fall of Romanian communism, emphasizing the art of woodcraft in the „Country of Maramureş". Through the great number and originality of its pieces, all wooden, the Bârsana complex is the most representative and the most valuable site of its kind in Romania |full text|.
Cheile Turzii Nature Reserve, Between Conservation and Tourism
K e y w o r d s: Cheile Turzii, nature reserve, Natura 2000, tourism, conservation, financial resources, awareness agent
Abstract. When it comes to natural protected areas, there has always been an antithesis between conservation and tourism, even though the latter bears the name of eco-tourism. This opposition is frequently expressed by many stakeholders in “Cheile Turzii” Nature Reserve, who come up with proposals that involve even the complete interdiction of tourists in the area. This paper does not intend to fully argue in favour of tourism in natural protected areas, phenomenon that has significant negative impacts on the protected elements within them, but actually intends to emphasize some aspects regarding the positive influence of tourism on the conservative management of natural areas and the improvement opportunities for such management practices through tourist involvement |full text|.
Holiday Villages in Romania. Typology and Premises for Development
K e y w o r d s:holiday village, premises for development, typology of holiday villages, spatial distribution, triggering factors for localization
Abstract. As tourism complex facility the holiday village is both an old and new concept in Romania. It is usually located in a specific area, with controlled access, designed to provide tourists a wide range of services such as: accommodation, catering, additional travel facilities for recreation, sports, and cultural activities. The present study focuses on the legal framework and regulations on the implementation and functioning of holiday villages, by analyzing their stage of development and causes of the increasing number of newly established holiday villages. However, the multitude of holiday villages, not necessarily complying with the requirements of the concept, brings out definite inconsistencies with the concept of holiday village. This was possible due to lack of legal and concept clarification of holiday villages and also due to the spatial dispersion of this tourism development phenomenon. Other states have managed to raise tourism to the rank of basic economic activity by narrowing the range of tourist activities and promotion of advanced specialization of some activities. Yet, it is not the case of tourism in Romania. Without this type of approach, tourism activities are largely losing their particularities, along with the concept of holiday village, whose true meaning is limited to just a few examples. Based on an exhaustive analysis we tried to establish a typology of holiday villages as well as to propose a zoning of the Romanian territory, in accordance with its suitability for the optimal functioning of these types of holiday village |full text|.
The Ecological Function of the City of Cluj-Napoca. A Functionalist-Heuristic Approach
K e y w o r d s: city, urban function, finality, classification of urban functions, ecological function, analysis of the ecological functional system, urban geosystem, prospective geography
Abstract. The concept of ecological function, here presented, is the result of epistemological endeavours on the city and its functions. We consider that the city, which has the features and the properties of a „living organism”, must not be assessed and analyzed from a Cartesian point of view, but functionalistically. The definition that we propose for the city, is that of an organized and complex geographic space, with a permanent dynamic, capable of ensuring a diversity of functions for its evolution and development, as well as for the evolution and development of its influence space. This definition is based on an entirely different axiology and its underlying concept is finality. The city’s finality generates a new definition of the urban function, which is the relationship of necessity formed between the elements of the urban geosystem and its state and which generates, cultivates and sustains the city`s life, working towards the attainment of its systemic finality. The two concepts, defined through a new philosophy, offer us a new perspective on the classification of urban functions, in which, objectively, the category of civic-urban functions sets in, containing among others the ecological function. This function has never been classified or even mentioned in the geographic literature. Having based our endeavour on the General System Theory and on the fractal theory, we considered the ecological function`s subsystem as a geosystem with all the necessary defining features, and we built an analysis, diagnosis and prognosis scheme for the subsystem of the ecological function of Cluj-Napoca |full text|.
Dinamica Populației din Bazinul Hidrografic al Bistriței Ardelene, în Intervalul 1850-2010
K e y w o r d s: demographical viability, demographical structures, evolution
Abstract. The dynamics of the population from the hydrographie of Bistriţa Ardeleană basin, from 1850 to 2010 In any endeavour that aims at evaluating the sustainahility of a specific territory, inevitably, the demographical component represents one of the supportive axis of the land planning initiative. Alongside the resources, the quality of the technical infrastructure, the environmental state and quality, the viability of the population component - both maker and beneficiary of the land management projects — represent an essential indicator in the conceptual construction of any fair study. The population number, the age-group structure, the territory distribution and last, but not least, the ethnical and confessional structures are guidelines that directly or indirectly allow for the shaping of a development scenario. There is no development in the absence of a population that is not involved in the sustain abili tv of this precise processand not a direct beneficiary of this endeavour |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: regions of development, teritorial discrepancies, Romania
Abstract. Being created at the European Union suggestion in order to reduce the differences between territorial development, the developmental regions in Romania are statistical units type NUTS II. Even though they have more than 10 years since they have been created, we can observe a developmental hypertrophy in the Bucuresti-Ilfov region, which disposes of the most diversified infrastructure and the highest and qualified demographic potential. In opposition with this one, the East and South peripheral region, with a state management type of industrial heritage, are still under developed, the territorial developmental discrepancies continuously growing thus proving in our case that this new type of regionalism is inefficient |full text|.
Tourist Organization of Space in the Eastern Carpathians - The Northern Group
K e y w o r d s: Eastern Carpathians – the Northern Group, Romania, touristic organization
Abstract. The Northern Group of the Eastern Carpathians distinguishes itself through an attractive tourist potential, both anthropic and natural. To the anthropic heritage belong the wooden churches and monasteries of Bucovina, and to the natural one, the varied relief, developed on a diversified lithological basis (eruptive rocks in the West, crystalline in the median area and sedimentary in the East). To all these adds up the unaltered human potential and the remarkable hospitality of the inhabitants. Three types of areas regarding the tourist organization of space have been highlighted based on the variety and level of the tourist potential, of the role in its development and its exploitation forms: areas with a complex organization, areas with a deficient organization, areas in the process of organizing themselves |full text|.
Assessment of Soil Erosion Potential by the Usle Method in Rosia Montana Mining Area and Associated Natech Events
ȘTEFĂNESCU Lucrina, CONSTANTIN Veronica, SURD Vasile, OZUNU Alexandru, VLAD Șerban-Nicolae
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1/2011, pp. 35-42
ISSN (online): 1842-4090
K e y w o r d s: soil erosion susceptibility, USLE, NATECH events, mining, Rosia Montana
Abstract. The paper presents the application of the USLE methodology for the assessment of the soil erosion susceptibility in the Rosia Montana mining perimeter, a 2000 year-old exploitation area. The peculiarities of the mountain topography and the vulnerability induced by the mining activities have caused the occurrence of soil erosion in significant areas. The identification and assessment in quantitative terms of these areas is vital from the mining structures physical stability point of view and that of environmental safety in the investigated region. The soil loss assessment is also considered in terms of Natech events (natural hazards trigger technological accidents), which combine the natural and technological components of a disaster. The results of the study illustrate the fact that the highest values of soil erosion are located in the open pit and waste heaps area, inducing the risk of physical collapse of waste heaps, especially if triggered by extreme climatic phenomena, causing a possible Natech event. Revegetation and physical stabilization measures should be implemented immediately as part of a rehabilitation plan, for the provision of regional safety |full text|.
General Framework of Regional Development in Romania
K e y w o r d s: regions of development, teritorial discrepancies, GDP, Romania
Abstract. Being created at the European Union sugestion in order to reduce the differences between territorial development, the development regions in Romania are statistical units type NUTS II. Even though they have more than 10 years since they have been created, we can observe a developmental hypertrophy in the Bucuresti-Ilfov region, which order the most diversified infrastructure and the highest and qualified demographic potential. In opposition to this, the East and South peripheric regions, with a state management type of industrial heritage, are still under developped, the teritorial discrepancies of development are continuously growing, proving in our case that this new type of regionalism is inefficient |full text|.
Cluj-Napoca. A Study in Electoral Geography. The Presidential Elections, 2009
K e y w o r d s: 2009 presidential elections, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, polling stations, voter turnout
Abstract. The analysis of the population's electoral behavior has only been a subject of interest in our country after the abolition of the socialist political-social system. This paper describes the differences in and coagulations of electoral preferences in the population of the city of Cluj-Napoca during the 2009 presidential elections. There were 156 permanent and 16 special polling stations set up in Cluj-Napoca, represented in both graphical and tabular form, in a suggestive and sufficiently statistically accurate manner |full text|.
Functional Aspects of Urban Communities: "The New Neighbourhoods". Case Study: Viilor Neighbourhood, Sighișoara Municipality, Mureș County
K e y w o r d s: neighbourhood, Viilor Neighbourhood, urban community, functionality, social policies
Abstract. The relationship between residents and the area that they were born and/or live in, on the one hand, as well as the determination of any form of social relationship established between individuals, on the other hand, represents the fundamental nature of a human community. “The New Neighbourhoods” have been formed both in urban and in rural areas – where dialogue covers other dimensions and connotations –; they were borrowed, in type and in form, from the Saxons, but are defined by a distinctive function. By clarifying the theoretical approach and terminology, and by describing the applied methodology, the analysis of urban community under the form of a case study, which was applied in the case of Viilor Neighbourhood – Sighișoara Municipality - evidences the possibility of considering it a territorial unit quite suitable for the implementation of various social policies |full text|.
The „Holiday Village” Concept and Its Role in Tourism Planning
K e y w o r d s: holiday village, organizational pattern, systemic position, tourism planning, sustainable development
Abstract. The „holiday village” is a category of tourist infrastructure, a form of tourism, as well as a type of tourism development, although rather seldom found in tourism and spatial planning. This fact is justified by its relative novelty and through the large number of requirements to be fulfilled in case of its planning. Internationally, the concept of “holiday village” has become a tradition for decades, whereas in Romania it is only at the beginning of its implementation. This paper substantiates the concept of “holiday village” aiming to provide scientific support to practitioners for the implementation of this category of tourist facility in tourism planning. The implementation of this concept in tourism spatial planning will determine an increasing degree of polarization of tourist infrastructure as well as the enhancement of natural resources, such as: landscape, ethnicity, culture, architecture, gastronomy and others, that initially belong to the tourist area in which the “holiday village” is located and which cannot be currently recovered due to their spatial dispersion. Besides this, if we take into consideration the economic side of the concept, “holiday villages” become genuine regional development nuclei. Changing the perspective, we consider that the implementation of this concept brings out a new form of tourism – spending vacation in the “holiday village” - directly addressing to the urban market. Given that Romania has a real natural and human potential to implement this concept, we consider it would complement the national tourist offer and would generate an optimum distribution of tourism infrastructure in the territory |full text|.
Strategic Vision and Concept of Regional Planning and Sustainable Development in Romania Based on the Use of Geospatial Solutions
K e y w o r d s: region of development, GIS, geospatial solution, sustainable development, regional development, integrated spatial planning
Abstract. The development and implementation of a strategic partnership concept of territorial planning in the short, medium and long term, as well as the identification of appropriate geospatial solutions, are key factors underpinning regional policy implementation needed to ensure the framework for the development of a sustainable and balanced development region.A four years long observation and analysis of planning and regional development within the Central Regional Development Agency lead to elaborating a strategy related to the current needs and trends in regional development. The starting point of the work consisted of an analytical review of the strategic and programmatic documents at the European, national and regional levels, as well as of the written literature in the field of regional planning and development, socio-economic development, and sustainable development. A regional strategic planning and development concept was developed based on the effective use of the Geographic Information Systems technology, a modern, dynamic and complex form of integration of geospatial solutions developed through the implementation of six support projects |full text|.
Eroilor Boulevard, Cluj-Napoca – Between Main Street and Clone Street
K e y w o r d s: frontier phenomenon, clone street, ghost street, Eroilor Boulevard, Cluj-Napoca, attributes, reaction
Abstract. Antropology and Earth sciences demonstrated that the city is the maximum „local” expression of any human society. All historical ages are expressions of frontier phenomena, while the city in general is a „frontier construction”. Within the Romanian space, Cluj-Napoca is the perfect example when it comes to constructing urban geosystems. As an expression of frontier phenomena in synthesis with „the spirit of place”, one of the frontiers that shaped it is the European frontier. The evolution and expansion of this universal frontier, in different forms and syntheses, manifest themselves today through „processes”, like the ones we call the cloning process, process of clone towns and process of ghost towns. These processes are increasingly present at macroreferential as well as microreferential level, through clone streets, which lost their personality and local spirit and were replaced by different imported forms. Whether Eroilor Boulevard, Cluj-Napoca, is attacked by this process of clone streets or whether it is a Main Street, is the object of this article’s approach. In order to analyze the microgeography of this street, its state as well as the reaction to the cloning process, we built an epistemological „construction” in which we introduced: the localisation and the definition of this boulevard, through historical attributes, urbanistic attributes and its urban functions in the geosystem of Cluj-Napoca (urbanistic; retail; touristic; transit) and the present day status and the systemic reaction to the cloning and ghost street processes. The second part of the analysis was built around the technique of comparing the sums of the street’s elements, states and relations between elements and states in three historical periods: 1960-1989; 1990-2005 and 2005-2011. The last period is the one of maximum aggression from the cloning process, when Eroilor Boulevard went through obvious systemic changes and when its physiognomy and trump cards as Main Street, with historical, touristic, retail and urbanistic personalities, had a reaction. As a result, for now, Eroilor Boulevard, Main Street ever since 1405, is losing ground. An answer to the above mentioned aporetic question cannot be found, but the future will most definitely bring that equilibrium between the trumps of the reaction frontier and the universal frontiers |full text|.
Tourism Development and Geographic Landscapes. Case Study: Azuga Town
K e y w o r d s: geographic landscape, landscape typology, natural landscape, altered landscape, anthropogenic landscape, landscape relevance and level of tourist attraction
Abstract. The geographic landscape represents a global interdisciplinary concept, integrating the natural with the social, through which man has changed and replaced the original ecosystems according to his needs and level of organization and development of the community to which it belongs. It can be defined as a result of the interrelations between physical and geographic components and human activity, also being subject to natural and socio-economic modelling. Therefore it results in a diversity of landscapes, with a higher anthropogenic influence in urban areas, whereas lower in rural areas. At the same time, the geographic landscape in association with tourism activities determines the emergence of a hybrid typology. Hence, concepts such as natural landscapes, altered landscapes or anthropogenic landscapes bring out new categories and identities. Tourism is one of the main beneficiaries of the geographic landscape, it basically representing support for the development of tourist activities. The typology and quality of geographic landscapes sets the premises for a typology of tourism activities, either stimulating or inhibiting tourism development. Starting from these general hypotheses in this paper we try to demonstrate the relationship between geographic landscape and tourism activities already developed or suitable to grow, by choosing Azuga town as case study |full text|.
The Rural Households. Case Study.Cheia Village, Mihai Viteazu Commune, Cluj County
K e y w o r d s: rural household, aggregation indicators,farming economy classes, Cheia village
Abstract. After 1989, fundamental changes in agricultural structures occurred as a consequence of the setting up of Land Law no. 18/1991 along with other subsequent regulations. Excessive concentration of property before 1989 took a new twist, pertaining to excessive fragmentation, therefore the shift from large areas of land to small farms nowadays. But the farmer received only land without machinery or equipment necessary to its efficient operation. In this paper we want to highlight the specific state of rural economic life in Romania after extinctions of political communist economy system and after almost the entire destruction of infrastructure and facilities left from the former political system (decommissioning and destruction of irrigation system, the abandoning of tractors and agricultural equipment buildings, of chemical fertilizer production). Therefore, we aim to highlight the present economic state of a village in Cluj County and its households |full text|.
The Systemic Location of Tourist Elements in the Integrated Spatial Planning. Case Study. The Outskirts of Bistrita Municipality
K e y w o r d s: tourism planning elements, systemic location, integrated spatial planning study
Abstract. The integrated spatial planning stands for a new concept in both urban and rural planning process. Yet, spatial studies poorly integrate tourism elements among the key issues of an integrated territorial approach. Our research highlights an example of inserting such tourist facilities in a study of spatial planning. Regardless the importance of tourism as an economic activity, but emphasizing on the importance of the appropriate use of land in the peripheral areas of a city, we underline the complex of opportunities proposed for the development, based on a systemic localisation of tourist areas, suitable in the case of Bistrita Municipality |full text|.
K e y w o r d s:Romania, rural decline, rural regeneration
Abstract. After the communism system collapse in December 1989, the Romanian rural space has known a continuous decline from both economic and demographic points of view. About 70% of Romanian agricultural land is out of work and the majority of food production for population is coming from abroad. There is no governmental economic and politic strategy for the revival of the economic life in our villages. At the same time, the process of decreasing rural population as a result of high rate of mortality, accompanied by migration abroad, both represent the main causes for rural general decline. For stopping this phenomenon it is obviously necessary to begin one broad action at the national level which must involve the central administration and the entire society to properly establish a new way of rural development, process which can be named rural regeneration |full text|.
Peculiarities of the New Architectural Interventions in Rural Area. Case Study: Trascău Depression, Alba County, Romania
K e y w o r d s: vernacular architecture, Trascău Depression, rural area, architectural conservation area, spatial planning
Abstract. The new construction trends have manifested in the rural area, as well. The perpetuation of certain traditional elements represents a challenge for the beneficiaries of these houses. The new architectural adjustments introduced in the local architecture of the Trascău Depression have built the central idea of this paper. First of all, one distinguished an inventory of the building types and the applied changes according to the partial or complete restoration works, respecting the local urban provisions or lending traditional elements noncompliant with the local tradition, followed by a spatial distribution and specification of the intervention measures for the preservation of the rural heritage. The paper highlights the cohabitation of the modern with the traditional, peculiarities of the present architectural style in the rural space, but also the extent to which the legislative act may intervene in providing the protection of some historical monuments. The use of georeferenced orthophotoplans of the Livezile, Rimetea, Colţeşti and Vălişoara built-up areas, rendered in a scale used in town-planning documentations (1:5000) and the territorial survey of 168 houses subjected to subsequent interventions (which 108 traditional houses with adjustments and 60 houses built during the modern period) represented the main tools of rendering the peculiarities of the architectural changes |full text|.
From Linear to Nodal Transport Infrastructure. Case Study: Maramureş County. Romania
K e y w o r d s:transport and communication infrastructure, linearity, nodal networks, territorial development
Abstract. The concept of linearity geometrically individualizes itself as the simplest form of representing the space. It developed, therefore influencing the communication and transport networks even from the beginning, until the end of the 19th century. Conceptually, linearity in transport and communication infrastructure has developed as excessively long networks, without too many nodes, all established on the idea of avoiding areas affected by geomorphologic risks. This manner of developing networks has determined a certain potential of communication exceeding in some areas, while other areas lacking or even becoming isolated. In the 21st century, when technology is able to fight all limits of accessibility, imposed by relief, for the development of infrastructure by constructing tunnels, bridges, a new approach has been established, that of nodal networks. The concept of nodal network in the development of transport and communication provides certain advantages, such as: the assimilation of several linear networks and their connection through nodes, therefore providing access in the territory through a node towards several directions, by using the same type of network or by using other types of infrastructures. Our case study underlines accurately the benefits brought up by passing from the linear to nodal infrastructure and new opportunities for development as its direct result |full text|.
The Impact of Building Recreational Houses in Rural Areas. Case Study: Rânca Mountain Resort
K e y w o r d s: recreational houses, protocol houses, mobility, amenity-rich landscape, recreational landscape
Abstract. The paper aims at showing how the present-day rural space suffers modifications meant to produce different changes in terms of physiognomy and also at social and economic levels, focusing on the phenomenon of building recreational houses in rural areas, by population coming from urban areas. The case study we have chosen refers to the Rânca mountain resort, situated in the Southern Carpathians (in the Parâng Mountains). This place, which thirty years ago might have passed for a peripherally rural area, it is now characterized by incipient urbanization. It is interesting to observe that this process is not supported by the closest urban centre (the town of Novaci), but by the towns located at greater distances (the towns of Craiova and Târgu-Jiu), that have the social and economic power to extend their influence up to 150 km distance. Therefore, the flows caused, on the one hand by the urban population migrating during the week-ends to the rural areas and, on the other hand, by the investments made in utility infrastructures, have profound implications not only on the changing rural landscape, but also on peoples’ perception of traditional (rural) versus modern (urban) way of life. Hence, a new type of landscape appears in remote rural areas, which benefit from an extraordinary natural potential, as a result of town dwellers’ wish for natural surroundings and urban standards |full text|.
Functional Zoning of the City/Village Area and its Role in the Sustainable Development of Settlements
K e y w o r d s: functional zoning, building regulations, land-use, urbandensity indicators, settlements, sustainable development
Abstract. Functional zoning of the city/village area is a mandatory step in planning a settlement. This is a complex conceptual and technical procedure carried out for the elaboration of the General Urban Plan (GUP), whose component it is, and on which the entire internal organization of a settlement depends. Its position in settlement’s internal structure is based on a variety of natural, technical and socio-economic elements, between which deep systemic relations are established. This complex geosystemic structure is nothing but the human habitat. Like other geosystemic structures it is also subject to planning and organization in order to improve the quality of housing. The quality of human habitat depends primarily on how the division and distribution of internal structural elements within a locality is made. In the past this was considered a secondary factor due to the limited technical possibilities of the human factor’s intervention, the dominant factor being the location in the territory. However, the fundamental concern is how to achieve this delineation of the city/village area, procedure that is called functional zoning, and what are the principles, methods and means used. Establishing the general urban characteristics ultimately depends on the development of a settlement, be it a rural or urban, as well as on the quality of the zoning process, which consists of: the determination of types of areas, their location within the city/village and their territorial size. Hence, when we speak about sustainable development of settlements we must take into account the way we realize the functional zoning of the city/village area |full text|.
Concept and Strategy of Development of Road Infrastructure in Mureș County to Reduce Territorial Disparities at Mesoscale and Microscale. Part I. Theoretical Background
K e y w o r d s: strategy of development, road infrastructure, territorial disparities, mesoscale and microscale
Abstract. Road infrastructure is part of the territorial transport and communication infrastructure, which has the highest impact on development due to its specific features: accessibility, low costs for execution and maintenance, complementariness, diverse typology. These features promoted road infrastructure as the most advantageous pillar for supporting the intercontinental territorial development, which are characterized by various and unstable terrain, both at mesoscale and microscale. The strategy of development of Mures County evaluated road infrastructure as the basic infrastructure in the development process. Starting from the analysis of current situation, along with all dysfunctions evaluated at a county level, this paper aims to develop a new concept of development of road infrastructure, theoretically based on the European and national framework regarding territorial development. The major objective of this concept is represented by the decrease of territorial disparities at both mesoscale and microscale within the county |full text|.
Concept and Strategy of Development of Road Infrastructure in Mureș County to Reduce Territorial Disparities at Mesoscale and Microscale. Part II. Practical Proposals
K e y w o r d s: concept of development, strategy of development, road infrastructure, regional disparities, scalar level
Abstract. Road infrastructure is part of the territorial transport and communication infrastructure, which has the highest impact on development due to its specific features: accessibility, low costs for execution and maintenance, complementariness, diverse typology. These features promoted road infrastructure as the most advantageous pillar for supporting the intercontinental territorial development, which are characterized by various and unstable terrain, both at mesoscale and microscale. The strategy of development of Mures County evaluated road infrastructure as the basic infrastructure in the development process. Starting from the analysis of current situation, along with all dysfunctions evaluated at a county level, this paper aims to develop a new concept of development of road infrastructure, theoretically based on the European and national framework regarding territorial development. The major objective of this concept is represented by the decrease of territorial disparities at both mesoscale and microscale within the county |full text|.
A Geographical Perspective on SAPARD Programme. Financial Absorption and its Influence on Rural Development in Romania
K e y w o r d s: SAPARD Programme, EU pre-accession period, rural development, financial absorption, territorial and time distribution
Abstract. Out of a multifaceted analysis provided by the complexity of such a subject, our approach underlines the aspects determined by the establishing of priorities regarding the implementation of SAPARD Programme, during the pre-accession period to the integration of Romania into the European Union. On the one hand, when studying the overall financial absorption of SAPARD funds in Romania, one can easily tend to justify the result judging by certain aspects such as the adaptability of people to the novelty, the know-how, the level of entrepreneurship or the geographic availability for a range of economic activities. On the other hand, we can notice the direct impact of the decision to gradually declare eligible all the measures of this programme, thus causing a relative spatial and temporal differentiation in distribution. However, the active participation of inhabitants all over the country, the access of people to information, the effect of imitation, eventually prove the insufficiency of funds as well as a relatively subjective distribution of projects in the territory. Even though with a slow start, rural inhabitants, and not only, succeeded to recover the time lost while thinking, therefore becoming more than active during the intermediary and final periods of the programme, thus creating the background need for a future financial assistance |full text|.
Coordonate Majore ale Dezvoltării Spaţiale Durabile a Municipiului Zalău
POPȘE Corina, ROMAN Călin, IRIMUȘ Ioan, PUIU Viorel, ZOTIC Vasile
Geography Within the Context of Contemporary Development, 2010, pp. 7-29
ISSN Print: 1843-2158
K e y w o r d s: dezvoltare spaţială durabilă, revitalizare urbană, instrument operaţional strategic, pol de dezvoltare intraregional
Abstract. Proiectarea dezvoltării urbane durabile în contextul integrării României în UE a devenit o prioritate stringentă, în vederea recuperării decalajelor dintre ceea ce înseamnă dezvoltarea urbană în UE şi la noi în ţară. Municipiul Zalău a beneficiat de o astfel de abordare cu ocazia elaborării PUG-ului prin care s-a urmărit ancorarea dezvoltării urbane în contextul local, zonal şi regional, raportat la noile tendinţe în domeniul urbanistic. Premisa fundamentală de la care s-a pornit în acest proiect a fost rolul teritorial şi funcţia economică a municipiului, secondat de revitalizarea urbană şi îmbunătăţirea mediului rezidenţial. în baza acestor premise s-a elaborat un instrument operaţional strategic de gestiune urbană în care sunt reglementate toate elementele structurale ale oraşului şi creionate perspectivele de dezvoltare durabilă pe termen scurt, mediu şi lung. în perspectiva dezvoltării durabile, Municipiul Zalău se impune ca şi pol de dezvoltare intraregional şi de echilibrare a polarizării urbane în cadrul Regiunii Nord-Vest. Pe plan local, acesta reprezintă un oraş în plină dezvoltare şi afirmare economică, fiind stimulat în acest sens de prezenţa Autostrăzii Transilvania, precum şi de forţă de muncă mediu şi înalt calificată. Mediul ambiant local oferă un cadru favorabil dezvoltării, acesta fiind un alt atu pentru o dezvoltare susţinută |full text|.
The Barrier Effect of the Danube in the Regional Development of the South-West, Oltenia Region. Case Study
Abstract. The Danube River has always been a natural barrier as well as a navigable channel - these two major aspects being crucial for the economic development of its common border states for a long period of time. In the context of economic globalization, the barrier effect of the Danube tends to lose importance, becoming a major issue in regional development. The problems raised by the Danube in the territorial policies of development have a direct influence on the regional development of the South-West Oltenia Region. This represents one of the strongest issues for the future strategies of development. The Danube River must be contextualized again and transformed from a non-permissive barrier into a permissive one |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: frontier, ethno-frontier, urban influence area, influence generator, influence vector, urban function, confrontational space, systems of thought, logistical groups, elites, geopolitics, localization, nomenclature, integrated protection system, spirit of place
Abstract. In the following paper, we will take on the difficult issue of systemic relations between the concept of „frontier", viewed as an expansionary phenomenon, and the city. More exactly, what we intend to accomplish is to take the theoretical background of the frontier and its phenomena, as put forward by Frederick J. Turner, the American sociologist and historian who coined the concept, R.A. Billington, W. J. Eccles, R. V. Hine, I. Bădescu, D. Dungaciu, C. Degeratu, R. Săgeată and A. Cuşco, and project it into/onto the definition of the urban area of influence due to the fact that we consider the frontier and especially the "European (Euro-Atlantic) frontier" to be the fundamental element, the main pillar in defining the city and its area of influence. The European frontier started as an intricate network of urban centres that had the ability to dominate vast rural areas (peasants) and became „the sum of all expansion processes of the urban-capitalist world in large rural areas" (I. Bădescu, 1995). Therefore, throughout the paper, we will stress the ways in which this concept manifests itself upon the city, how its areas of influence are created by the frontier through different manners and the permanent deterministic relations that still are and always will be between the frontier and the city |full text|.
The Structure and Quality of the Human Factor Within the Development Regions of Romania
K e y w o r d s: structure and quality of population, development region, Romania
Abstract. In 2000, 8.4% of Romania's population had higher education, 77.4 % medium education and 14.3% primary education. The obvious increase of the population with higher studies, as a result of the establishment of numerous state and private universities, lead to spectacular leaps within this last decade. Meanwhile, there was also a significant increase in the population with medium studies (77.4%), exceeding the European Union average (70%), a trend that will continue in the following years. The decrease of the population with primary studies is caused by the dramatic decrease in the population of school age, within the greater context of the general demographic decline of Romania. One must notice that, at the level of development regions, the former economic system, the economic and cultural legacy generated significant regional availabilities, with an excessive polarisation of the development factor by the Bucureşti-Ilfov region. Likewise, the regional development centres, which are mainly second tier cities in the national hierarchy (Cluj-Napoca, Iaşi, Braşov, Craiova, Timişoara, Galaţi and Constanţa), sustain and concentrate a population with a high degree of education and with an enhanced ability to innovate, but well below the advanced states. The „brain-drain" phenomenon, within this category of population, has reached alarming levels |full text|.
K e y w o r d s: Romania, agriculture, trends, challanges, solutions
Abstract. The present paper reviews Romania’s agriculture in terms of trends and challenges. The general factors with influence on the Agriculture, a historical of the agrarian reforms, the enlargement process and its consequences for the agriculture of the Central and Eastern European Countries, some comparative results between the negotiations of Romania and other Central and Eastern European Countries, and other actual problems and solutions are discussed |full text|.
Restraints and Opportunities of the Romanian Rural Areas
K e y w o r d s:urban-rural space, rural state, rural policy infrastructure, agricultural land, Romania
Abstract. Although Romania disposes of an extremely valuable agricultural land, it has proved to be insufficient and irrationally exploited in the last two decades, as a direct consequence of the programme for returning the agricultural areas to the former individual landowners. The lack of technological agricultural means for cultivating the land, its excessive allotment, as well as the rather inappropriate involvement of the political factor in the decision making process and the invasion of imported agricultural products have generated a continuous process of degradation of the rural life as a whole and certain repercussions on the food safety. Currently, more than 50% of the Romanian agricultural area is not being cultivated, while the state imports more than 70% of alimentary products every year |full text|.